Böckerman, Petri and Johansson, Edvard and Helakorpi, Satu and Uutela, Antti (2007): Economic Inequality and Health: Looking Beyond Aggregate Indicators.
Download (93Kb) | Preview
This paper examines the relationship between relative income inequality and health in Finland, using individual microdata over the period 1993-2005. Our data allows us to analyse a large spectrum of health indicators. Overall, our results suggest that income inequality is not associated with increased morbidity in the population. The results for women differ to quite a large extent from those of men and the pooled sample. There is evidence that an increase in the Gini coefficient is negatively related to the probability of good physical health and no disability retirement. For men, relative income inequality is clearly not important for health.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Economic Inequality and Health: Looking Beyond Aggregate Indicators|
|Keywords:||Health, health behaviour, economic inequality, relative income inequality, relative deprivation, Gini coefficient|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I0 - General > I00 - General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare and Poverty > I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
|Depositing User:||Petri Böckerman|
|Date Deposited:||08. Nov 2007 13:19|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 04:35|
Adams P, Hurd MD, McFadden D, Merrill A, Ribeiro T. Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status. Journal of Econometrics 2003; 112; 3-56.
Atkinson T. The distribution of earnings in OECD countries. International Labour Review 2007; 146; 41-60.
Behrens A. Regional gross domestic product in the European Union 2000. Eurostat 2003; Statistics in Focus, Theme 1 – 1/2003.
Böckerman P, Ilmakunnas P. Unemployment and self-assessed health: evidence from panel data. Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER) 2007; Discussion Paper No. 148.
Cowell FA. Measuring Inequality. Philip Allan: Oxford; 1977.
Dahl E, Elstad JI, Hofoss D, Martin-Mollard M. For whom is income inequality most harmful? A multi-level analysis of income equality and mortality in Norway. Social Science and Medicine 2006; 63; 2562-2574.
Deaton A. Inequalities in income and inequalities in health. In: Welch I. (Ed), The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Inequality. University of Chicago Press: Chicago; 2001. p. 285-313. Deaton A, Lubotsky D. Mortality, inequality and race in American cities and states. Social Science and Medicine 2003; 56; 1139-1153.
Diez-Roux AV, Link BG, Northridge ME. A multilevel analysis of income inequality and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Social Science and Medicine 2000; 50; 673-687.
Etienne JM, Skalli A, Theodossiou I. Do economic inequalities harm health? Evidence from Europe. Centre for European Labour Market Research 2007; Discussion Paper No. 13.
Fuchs VR. Reflections on the socio-economic correlates of health. Journal of Health Economics 2004; 23; 653-661.
Gerdtham UG, Johannesson M. Absolute income, relative income, income inequality, and mortality. Journal of Human Resources 2004; 39; 228-247.
Henriksson G, Allebeck P, Weitoft GR, Thelle D. Are manual workers at higher risk of death than non-manual employees when living in Swedish municipalities with higher income inequality? European Journal of Public Health 2007; 17; 139-144.
Helakorpi S, Laitalainen E, Absetz P, Torppa J, Uutela A, Puska P. (2007). Aikuisväestön terveyskäyttäytyminen maakunnissa 1978-2005. Publications of the National Public Health Institute 2007; No. B15. Holmlund, B. Sickness absence: An introduction. Swedish Economic Policy Review 2004; 11; 3-8.
Jäntti M, Danzinger S. Income poverty in advanced countries. In: Atkinson AB, Bourguignon F (Eds), Handbook of Income Distribution, Volume 1. North-Holland: Amsterdam; 2000. p. 309-378.
Kahn RS, Wise PH, Kennedy BP, Kawachi I. State income inequality, household income, maternal mental and physical health: Cross sectional national survey. British Medical Journal 2000; 321; 1311-1315.
Kaplan GA, Pamuk E, Lynch JW, Cohen D, Balfour J. Inequality in income and mortality in the United States: Analysis of mortality and potential pathways. British Medical Journal 1996; 312; 999-1003.
Kennedy BP, Kawachi I, Prothrow-Stith D. Income distribution and mortality: Cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States. British Medical Journal 1996; 312; 1004-1007.
Loikkanen HA, Rantala A, Sullström R. Regional Income Differences in Finland, 1966-96. Government Institute for Economic Research 1998; Discussion Paper No. 181.
Mellor JM, Milyo J. Income inequality and health status in the United States. Journal of Human Resources 2002; 37; 510-539. Moulton BR. An illustration of a pitfall in estimating the effects of aggregate variables on micro units. The Review of Economics and Statistics 1990; 72; 334-338.
Neckerman KM, Torche F. Inequality: Causes and consequences. Annual Review of Sociology 2007; 33; 335-357.
Nummela O, Helakorpi S, Laatikainen T, Uutela A, Puska P. (2000). Terveys-käyttäytyminen ja terveydentila maakunnittain Suomessa 1978-1999. Publications of the National Public Health Institute 2000; No. B10.
Riihelä M, Sullström R, Tuomala M. Economic poverty in Finland 1971-2004. Government Institute for Economic Research 2007; Discussion Paper No. 418.
Rodgers GB. Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: An international cross-section analysis. Population Studies 1979; 33; 343-351.
Ross NA. What have we learned by studying income inequality and population health? Canadian Institute for Health Information 2004.
Subramanian SV, Kawachi I. Income inequality and health: What have we learned so far? Epidemiologic Review 2004; 26; 78-91.
Sturm R, Gresenz CR. Relations of income inequality and family income to chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders: National survey. British Medical Journal 2002; 324; 1-5. Wilkinson RG. Income distribution and life expectancy. British Medical Journal 1992; 304; 165-168.
Wilkinson RG. Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. Routledge: London; 1996.
Wilkinson RG, Pickett KE. Income inequality and population health: A review and explanation of the evidence. Social Science and Medicine 2006; 62; 1768-1784.