Leitão, João and Ferreira, João (2007): Liberalization of European Telecommunications and Entrepreneurship: Why German and Portuguese Experiences are so Equal and so Different?
Download (284Kb) | Preview
The paper aims to investigate the impact of the liberalization of European Telecommunications Markets, on the Business Ownership Rate, the Employment, the Gross Domestic Product, and the Investment in ICT, in two European countries: Germany and Portugal. For this purpose, a Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive (CVAR) approach is developed, in order to identify the impacts that are originated from the adoption of this kind of public policies. In the case of Germany, a surprising causality relationship is detected, in the sense that Gross Domestic Product precedes decreasing Business Ownership Rates. In the case of Portugal, the Business Ownership Rate pulls for additional investments in ICT. Besides, a creative entrepreneurial destruction is somehow ratified, since the Business Ownership Rate impacts, negatively, on the level of employment.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Liberalization of European Telecommunications and Entrepreneurship: Why German and Portuguese Experiences are so Equal and so Different?|
|Keywords:||Entrepreneurship, Information and Communication Technologies, Cointegration, Vector Autoregressive Model|
|Subjects:||L - Industrial Organization > L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities > L96 - Telecommunications
L - Industrial Organization > L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy > L51 - Economics of Regulation
M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting > M1 - Business Administration > M13 - New Firms; Startups
|Depositing User:||João Leitão|
|Date Deposited:||13. Nov 2007 03:16|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 13:41|
Audrescht, D. and Fritsch, M. (1994) The geography of firm births in Germany, Regional Studies, 28 (4), July, 359-365. Audretsch, A. and Thurik, R. (2001) Linking Entrepreneurship to growth. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working papers, 2001/2, OECD Publishing. Audretsch, D. (2003) Entrepreneurship: A survey of the literature, Enterprise papers No. 14, Brusessels: European Commission. Audretsch, D. and Thurik, R. (2000) Capitalism and democracy in the 21st century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy, Evolutionary Economics, 10: 17-34. Audretsch, D. and Thurik, R. (2004) A model of the Entrepreneurial Economy. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 2 (2), 143-166. Audretsch, D. Carree, M. and Thurik, R. (2001) Does self-employment reduce unemployment? Discussion paper T101-074/3, Tinbergen Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Baptista, R.; Thurik, R. (2007), The relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment: Is Portugal an outlier? Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 74 (2007): 75–89. Bosma, N., Wit, G. and Craree, M. (2003) Modelling Entrepreneruship, Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper, http://www.tinbergen.nl/discussionpapers/03014.pdf, accessed 22-01-07. Bowen, H. and Clercq, D. (2005) National institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Working paper serie 2005/15, Belgique. Bowen, H. and Clercq, D. (2005) National Institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Vlerick Leuven Gent Working Paper Series 2005/15. Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgique. Boyer, R. (2004) The Future of Economic Growth: As New Becomes Old. The Saint-Gobain Centre for Economics Studies Series, Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA, USA. Brock, W. and Evans, D. (1989) Small business economics. Small Business Economics, 1 (1): 7-20. Bull, I. and Willard, G. (1993) Towards a theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8: 183-195. Cantillon, R. (1734) Essay sur la nature du commerce en general. MacMillan. London. Capelleras, J.; Mole, F.; Greene, F.; Storey, D. (2005) Do More Heavily Regulated Economies Have Poorer Performing New Ventures? Evidence from Britain and Spain, CSME Working Paper Series, n.º 86, Coventry, UK, University of Warwick. Carland, J., Carland J. A. and Carland, J. W. (1995) A model of entrepreneurship: the process of venture creation. Proceedings, Annual Conference, March, Houston, Texas. Carree, M. and Thurik, R. (2005) Understanding the role of entrepreneurship for economic growth, Discussion papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, edited MPI Jena. Carree, M. and Thurik,R. (2006) The lag structure of the impact of business ownership one economic performance in OECD countries. Discussion papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, edited MPI Jena. Carree, M., Van Stel, A., Thurik, R., and Wennekers, S. (2002) Economic development and business ownership: An analysis using data of 23 OECD countries in the period 1976-1996. Small Business Economics, 19 (3): 271- 297. Corbetta, G., Huse, M., and Ravasi, D. (2005) Crossroads of entrepreneurship research: an introduction. In Crossroads of Entrepreneurship, Edited by Corbetta, G., Huse, M. and Ravasi, D., International Studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer. Cowling, M. and Bygrave, W. (2002) Entrepreneurship and unemployment: Relationships between unemployment and entrepreneurship in 37 nations participating in the GEM, Frontiers for Entrepreneurship Research , Babson College, http://www.babson.edu/entrep/fer/BABSON2003/XXII/XXII-P1/xxi-p1.htm accessed 14-10-2005. Davidsson, P. (1989) Continued entrepreneurship and small firm growth. Stockholm: Stockholm School of Economics. Davidsson, P. and Wiklund, J. (2000) Levels of analysis in entrepreneurship research: current research practice and suggestions for the future. www.hj.se/ihh/eng/research/peg/Downloads/UnitsofA.doc, accessed 15-04-2001. Dickey, D. and Fuller, W. (1979) Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive Time series with Unit Root, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 74: 427–431. Djankov, S.; La Porta, R.; Lopez-de-Silanes, F.; and Shleifer, A. (2002) The Regulation of Entry, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117, 1-37. European Commission (2003) Green Paper entrepreneurship in Europe, Brussels: European Commission. Fayolle, A. (1999) Entrepreneurial Management: Factor or Fiction? Proceedings 44th ICBS World Conference, 20-30, June, Napoli, Italy. Freytag, A. and Thurik, R. (2007) Entrepreneurship and Its Determinants in a Cross Country Setting, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Special Issue on Entrepreneurship and Culture, forthcoming. Goux, J-F. (1996) Le canal étroit du crédit en France, Revue D’Économie Politique, 106 (4), Juillet-Août, 1996: 655–681. Granger, C. (1969) Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross Spectral Methods, Econometrica, 37: 424–438. Grilo, I. and Thurik, R. (2004) Entrepreneurship in the EU: to wish and not to be, Discussion Papers on entrepreneurship, growth and Public Policy, edited by Group Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public policy, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany. Grilo, I. and Thurik, R. (2004) Determinants of entrepreneurship in Europe. Working Paper, ERIM Report Series Research in Management (ERS-2004-106-ORG). Johansen, S. and Juselius, K. (1990) Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration with Applications to Money Demand, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52: 169–210. Juselius, K. (2007) The Cointegrated VAR Model – Methodology and Applications. Forthcoming on Oxford University Press. Landström, H. (2005) Pionners in entrepreneruship research. In Crossroads of Entrepreneurship, Edited by Corbetta, G., Huse, M.,and Ravasi, D., International Studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer. Lowe, R. and Marriott, S. (2006) Enterprise: Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Published by Elsevier Ltd., the Netherlands. Lütkepohl, H. (1999) Vector Autoregressions, Working Paper of Institut für Statistik und Ökonometrie, Humboldt, Universitat, Berlin, http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/wophumbsf/1999-4.htm, accessed 02-04-2004. Lütkepohl, H. (2004) Recent Advances in Cointegration Analysis, Economics Working Papers ECO2004/12, European University Institute, Florence, http://www.iue.it/PUB/ECO2004-12.pdf, accessed 11-04-2004. Newey W., and West, K. (1987) A simple positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix, Econometrica, 55: 703-708. OECD (2004). The economic impact of ICT – Measurement, evidence and implications. OECD, Paris. Osterwald-Lenum, M. (1992) A note with quantiles of the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood cointegration rank test statistics, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 54: 461–471. Parker, S. (2005) The economics of Entrepreneurship: What we know and what we don’t, Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 1 (1): 1-54. Perminov, S. and Egorova, E. (2005) ICT Impact on Labor Productivity and Employment in Russia, TIGER Working paper series, No. 73, February, Warsaw, http://www.tiger.edu.pl/publikacje/TWPNo73.pdf, accessed 24-01-07. Phillips, P. and Perron, P. (1988) Testing for unit root in time series regression, Biometrika, 75: 335–346. Piatkowski, M. (2004) The impact of ICT on growth in Transition economies, TIGER Working paper series, No. 59, July, Warsaw. http://www.tiger.edu.pl/publikacje/TWPNo59.pdf, accessed 24-01-07. Piatkowski, M. (2005) The Potential of ICT for the Development and Economic Restructuring of the New EU Member States and Candidate Countries, IPTS Technical Report, Directorate-General Joint Research Center, European Commission, February, http://www.jrc.es/home/pages/detail.cfm?prs=1256 accessed 24-01-07. Pinto, R. (2005) Challenges for public policy in promoting entrepreneurship in south eastern Europe, Local Economy, 20 (1):111-117. Reynolds, P., Story, D. and Westhead, P. (1994) Cross-national comparisons of the variation in new firm formation rates. Regional Studies, 28 (4), July, 443-456. Ronen, S. (1983) Some Insights into the entrepreneurial Process, in J. Ronen (ed.), Entrepreneurship, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D. C. Heath, 137-173. Say, J. B. (1803) Traité d'économie politique. Paris: Calmann-Lévy Éditeur, 1972. Collection Perspectives de l'économique - Les fondateurs. Schumpeter, J. (1934) The theory of economic development. Cambridge: MA; Harvard University Press. Sexton, D. and Bowman, N. (1987) A Growth model of the firm based on market, Owner and Strategic factors, in G. Hills (eds), Research at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface, Marietta, GA. Sexton, D. and Bowman-Upton, N. (1987) A growth model of the firm based on market, owner, and strategic factors, in G. Hills (eds), Research at the Marketing/entrepreneurship Interface, Marietta, GA. Sims, C. (1980) Macroeconomics and Reality, Econometrica, 48 (1) (January 1980): 1-48. Smith, H., Glasson, J. and Chadwick, A. (2005) The Geography of Talent: Entrepreneurship and local economic development in Oxfordshire. Van Stel, A., Storey, D. and Thurik, R. (2006) The Effect of business regulations on nascent and actual entrepreneurship. Discussion Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, edited by Group Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public policy, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany. Van Stel, A. (2006) Empirical Analysis of Entrepreneurship and economic growth. International Studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer. Storey, D. (1999 Six steps to heaven: evaluating the impact of public policies to support small business in developed economies, in D. L. Sexton and H. Landström (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Oxford: Blackwell, 176-194. Storey, D. (2003) Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Public Policies, In: Z.J. Acs and D.B. Audretsch (eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston/Dordrecht, USA/NL, 473-514. Thurik, R. and Grilo, I. (2005) Determinants of entrepreneurial engagement levels in Europe and the US. Discussion papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, edited MPI Jena. Thurik, R. and Wennekers, A. (2004) Entrepreneurship, small business and economic growth. Journal of small business and enterprise development, 11 (1):140-149. UN (2005) Measuring ICT: the global status of ICT indicators - Partnership on Measuring ICT for development. United Nations ICT Task Force, New York. Veciana, J. (1996) Generación y Desarrollo de Nuevos Proyectos Innovadores, Economia Industrial, 310, 79-90. Verheul, I, Wennekers, S., Audretsch, D., and Thurik, R. (2002) An Eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: policies, institutions and culture, In D. B. Audretsch, A.R. Thurik, I. Verhul and A. R. M. Wennerkers (eds), Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European – US Comparison, Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 11-81. Virtanen, M. (1997) The role different theories in explaining entrepreneurship. Proceedings of the 42th ICSB World Conference. San Francisco. Wennekers, S., Van Stel, A., Thurik, R. and Reynolds, P. (2005) Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development, Discussion Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, edited MPI Jena. Wennekers, S. and Thurik, R. (1999) Linking entrepreneurship and economic growth, Small Business Economics, 13 (1): 27-56.
Available Versions of this Item
- Liberalization of European Telecommunications and Entrepreneurship: Why German and Portuguese Experiences are so Equal and so Different? (deposited 13. Nov 2007 03:16) [Currently Displayed]