Hasan, Lubna Hasan (2001): Forest Management.
Download (181kB) | Preview
This study analyses the institutional set-up of forest management in Pakistan, focusing on the North West Frontier Province, which houses 40 percent of the total forestlands. These areas have faced significant deforestation in the past. It is feared that if nothing is done to check this process, these forests will soon disappear. The study argues for the Property Rights School of thought that the roots of environmental problems are to be traced to inadequate and ill-defined property institutions. The study develops a normative criterion, describing the conditions that are essential for optimal utilisation and conservation of a resource, to be used in assessing the present situation. The analysis indicates that there are problems in the ownership structure, in the enforcement of property rules, as well as in the management system. It is concluded that the present institutional set-up is inappropriate to achieve the objective of forest conservation, and changes in this set-up are suggested. The study puts forward ‘collective management’ as an alternative institutional set-up.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Forest Management|
|English Title:||Analysing Institutional Set-up of Forest Management in Pakistan|
|Keywords:||Forests, Institutions, Property Rights|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q58 - Government Policy|
|Depositing User:||Lubna Hasan|
|Date Deposited:||27. Dec 2007 01:05|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 18:10|
Ashraf, M. (1992a) Forest Policy, Tenure, and Legislation. Background Paper for Forestry Sector Master Plan of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Ashraf, M. (1992b) Forestry Institutions in Pakistan. Background Paper for Forestry Sector Master Plan of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Azhar, R. A. (1993) Commons, Regulations, and Rent-seeking Behaviour: The Dilemma of Pakistan’s Guzara Forests. Economic Development and Cultural Change 42:19 115–129. Banuri, T., and F. A. Marglin (eds) (1993) Who Will Save the Forests? Knowledge, Power and Environmental Destruction. London: Zed Books. Barzel, Y. (1989) Economic Analysis of Property Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Benjaminsen, T. A. (1995) Natural Resource Management and Decentralisation. Towards Co-management in Mali. Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo. (Working Paper 3.) Bromley, D. W., and M. Cernea (1989) The Management of Common Property Resources: Some Conceptual and Operational Fallacies. The World Bank, Washington, D. C. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 57.) Cernea, M. M. (1988a) Land Tenure Systems and Social Implications of Forestry Development Programmes (Pakistan). In L. Fortmann and J. W. Bruce (eds) Whose Trees? Propriety Dimensions of Forestry. Boulder and London: Westview Press. 139–148. Cernea, M. M. (1988b) Alternative Social Forestry Development Strategies. In J. Ives and D. C. Pitt (eds) Deforestation: Social Dynamics in Watersheds and Mountain Ecosystems. London: Routledge. 159–190. Cernea, M. M. (1990) User Groups as Producers in Participatory Afforestation Strategies. The World Bank, Washington, D. C. (World Bank Discussion Paper No. 70.) Dani, A. A., C. J. N. Gibbs, and D. Bromley (1987) Institutional Development for Local Management of Rural Resources. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. (Working Report No 2.) Demsetz, H. (1967) Towards a Theory of Property Rights. American Economic Review 57: May 347–359. Dove, M. (1994) Jungle in Nature and Culture. In R. Guha (ed.) Social Ecology. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 90-111. Eggertsson, T. (1990) Economic Behaviour and Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press. FAO (1995) Forestry: Statistics Today For Tomorrow, 1945–1993…2010. FAO, Rome. FAO (1998) Update 33: Asia and The Pacific, National Forest Programmes. FAO, Rome. (RAP Publication 1998/13.) Fortmann, L., and J. W. Bruce (eds) (1988) Whose Trees? Propriety Dimensions of Forestry. Boulder, London: Westview Press. Gadgil, M., and R. Guha (1995) Ecology and Equity—The Use and Abuse of Nature in Contemporary India. London: Routledge. Guha, R. (1989) The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Guha, R. (1993) The Malign Encounter: The Chipko Movement and Competing Visions of Nature. In T. Banuri and F. A. Marglin (eds) Who Will Save the Forests? Knowledge, Power and Environmental Destruction. London: Zed Books. 80–109. Hanna, S., and M. Munasinghe (eds) (1995) Property Rights and the Environment: Social and Ecological Issues. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Harriss, J., J. Hunter, and C. M. Lewis (eds) (1995) The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development. London: Routledge. Ives, J., and D. C. Pitt (eds) (1988) Deforestation: Social Dynamics in Watersheds and Mountain Ecosystems. London: Routledge. Khan, J., and R. Zurflueh (1994) The Timber Harvesting Ban and Its Implications. Kalam Integrated Development Project, Kalam, Pakistan. Khan, M. (1995) State Failure in Weak States: A Critique of New Institutionalist Explanations. In J. Harriss, J. Hunter, and C. M. Lewis (eds) The New Institutionalist Economics and The Third World Developemnt. London: Routledge. Khattak, G. M. (1994) Strategy for the Sustainable Development of Forestry in NWFP. IUCN, Peshawar, Pakistan. Khattak, G. M. (1996) Proposed Forestry Policy for NWFP. Islamabad, Pakistan. (Paper Presented at Sustainable Development Policy Institute.) Knudsen, A. J. (1996) Deforestation and Entrepreneurship in the NWFP, Pakistan. Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) of Development Studies and Human Rights, Bergen. (CMI Working Paper WP 1996:11.) Macpherson, C. B. (ed.) (1978) Property: Mainstream and Critical Positions. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. McCay, B. J., and J. M. Acheson (eds) (1987) The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press. Mumtaz, S., and Durr-e-Nayab (1991) Management Arrangements of the Chaprote Forest and Their Implications for Sustainable Development. The Pakistan Development Review 30:4 1075–1086. Mumtaz, S., and Durr-e-Nayab (1992) The Rationale of Common Property in the Development Context. The Pakistan Development Review 31:3 259–285. Mumtaz, S., et al. (1993) Development and the Local Context: A Case Study of the Chalt-Chaprote Community in the Nagar Valley of Northern Pakistan. Pakistan Office of German Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Islamabad. Nabli, M. K., and J. B. Nugent (1989) The New Institutional Economics and its Applicability to Development. World Development 17:9 1333–1347. North, D. C. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press. North, D. C. (1991) Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives 5:1 97–112. NWFP, Government of (1999) Annual Development Statistics. Bureau of Statistics NWFP, Peshawar. Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons: Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ostrom, E., and R. Gardner (1993) Coping with Asymmetries in the Commons: Self Governing Irrigation Systems Can Work. Journal of Economic Perspectives 7:4 93–112. Pakistan, Government of 1992c) National Conservation Strategy. Government of Pakistan and IUCN, Karachi. Pakistan, Government of (1963) The West Pakistan Forest Manual, Volume 1, Legislation Relating to Forest Administration with Rules Made Under Forest Acts and Regulations. Government of Pakistan, Peshawar Pakistan, Government of (1992a) Forestry Sector Master Plan: National Perspective. Islamabad. Pakistan, Government of (1992b) Forestry Sector Master Plan: North West Frontier Province. Islamabad. Pakistan, Government of (1998) Compendium on Environment Statistics Pakistan. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Islamabad. Pakistan, Government of (1999-2000) The Economic Survey. Finance Division, Islamabad. Pejovich, S. (1990) The Economics of Property Rights: Towards a Theory of Comparative Systems. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Poffenberger, M. (1995) The Resurgence of Community Forest Management in the Jungle Mahals of West Bengal. In D. Arnold, and R. Guha (eds) Nature, Culture, Imperialism-Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 336-369 Reeve, A. (1986) Property, Issues in Political Theory Series. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Runge, C. F. (1984) Strategic Independence in the Model of Property Rights. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 66: 807–813. Seabright, P. (1993) Managing Local Commons: Theoretical Issues in Incentive Design. Journal of Economic Perspectives 7:4 113–134. Singh, C. (1986) Common Property and Common Poverty: India’s forests, Forest dwellers, and the Law. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Tietenberg, T. (1992) Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. New York: Harper Collins. Tietenberg, T. (1994) Environmental Economics and Policy. New York: Harper Collins College. Tisdell, C. (1993) Environmental Economics: Policies for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. Van Dijk, A., and M. Hussein (eds) (1994) Environmental Profile of the North West Frontier Province Pakistan. Rawalpindi: Imprint. Waldron, J. (1990) The Right to Private Property. Oxford: Clarendon Press.