Mariam, Yohannes (1999): The Impact of Acid Rain on the Aquatic Ecosystems of Eastern Canada.
Download (119kB) | Preview
In the past environmental management practices have been based on disparate analysis of the impacts of pollutants on selected components of ecosystems. However, holistic analysis of emission reduction strategies is necessary to justify that actions taken to protect the environment would not unduly punish economic growth or vice versa. When environmental management programs are implemented, it would be extremely difficult for the industry to attain the targeted emission reduction in a single year in order to eliminate impacts on ecosystems. It means that targets have to be established as increments or narrowing the gap between the desired level of atmospheric deposition and actual deposition. These targets should also be designed in a way that would balance the impacts on the economy with improvements in environmental quality. Environment Canada in partnership with other organizations has developed an Integrated Assessment Modeling Platform. This platform enables to identify an emission reduction strategy(ies) that is(are) able to attain the desired environmental protection at a minimum cost to the industry. In this study, an attempt is made to examine the impact on the industry when the level of protection provided to the aquatic ecosystems is implemented using environmental and environmental-economic goals as objectives using Canadian IAM platform. The modeling platform takes into account sources and receptor regions in North America. The results of the analysis indicated that reductions of at least 50% of depositions of SO2 would require complete removal of emissions from all sources. However, this is not compatible with the paradigm of balancing economy with the environment. Therefore, gradual reductions in emissions as well as depositions were found to be plausible strategy. When depositions are reduced by 80% and maximum emission reduction is set at 90%, the number of lakes with pH>6 as well as the presence of fish increased significantly compared to current level. These improvements in acidification in lakes are particularly visible for a strategy that incorporates both environmental and economic goals. Furthermore, optimization using only a single receptor at a time resulted in significantly higher reduction in emissions compared to optimization that incorporates all the twelve Canadian receptors in a single run. It implies that globally optimal emission reduction strategy (i.e., multi-receptor optimization) would not penalize the sources of emission compared to locally optimal emission reduction strategy (i.e., single receptor optimization). It is hoped that with this kind of analysis of feasible environmental targets can be put in place without jeopardizing the performance of the economy or industry while ensuring continual improvements in environmental health of ecosystems.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Impact of Acid Rain on the Aquatic Ecosystems of Eastern Canada|
|Keywords:||single pollutant/single-effect; multi-pollutant/multi-effect; acid rain; Canada; long-range transport; air pollutants; acid deposition; North America; sources-receptors; emissions; cost functions; SO2; control technologies; Integrated Assessment Modelling; USA; atmospheric deposition; optimization; environmental health|
|Subjects:||C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C2 - Single Equation Models ; Single Variables > C22 - Time-Series Models ; Dynamic Quantile Regressions ; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models ; Diffusion Processes
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q58 - Government Policy
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q53 - Air Pollution ; Water Pollution ; Noise ; Hazardous Waste ; Solid Waste ; Recycling
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General > C13 - Estimation: General
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services ; Biodiversity Conservation ; Bioeconomics ; Industrial Ecology
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q55 - Technological Innovation
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q52 - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs ; Distributional Effects ; Employment Effects
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q56 - Environment and Development ; Environment and Trade ; Sustainability ; Environmental Accounts and Accounting ; Environmental Equity ; Population Growth
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C6 - Mathematical Methods ; Programming Models ; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling > C61 - Optimization Techniques ; Programming Models ; Dynamic Analysis
|Depositing User:||Yohannes Mariam|
|Date Deposited:||04. Nov 2006|
|Last Modified:||10. Mar 2015 02:17|
1. Legge, A.H., and Krupa, S.V. (eds)., 1990. Acidic Deposition: Sulphur and Nitrogen Oxides. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Michigan, U.S.A.. 2. Environment Canada., 1995. Air Emissions: Baseline Forecast, 1990-2010, Pollution Data Branch. March. 3. Environment Canada., 1990. The 1990 Canadian Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants & Acid Deposition Assessment report: Part 1, Executive Summary; & Part 4, Aquatic Effects. 4. Mariam, Y., 1994a. Analysis of the socioeconomic implication of environmental pollution from emission of NOx . mimeo. Economic Analysis Branch, Environment Canada. May.
5. Mariam, Y., 1994b. Trend analysis of energy use and emission of NOx for eastern Canada. Mimeo. Economic Analysis Branch, Environment Canada. December. 6. Morgan, M.G. and H. Dowlatabadi, 1996. Climatic Change, 34, 3-4, 337-368. 7. Wareham, D.G., McBean, E.A., and Byrne, J.M., 1988.Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 40, 157-175. 8. Perrings, C., Folke, C. and Maler, K.G., 1992. Ambio, 21,3, 201-210. 9. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1990. Management plan for NOx /VOCs, Nov. 10. Parson, E.A. and K. Fisher Vanden, 1995. Searching for Integrated Assessment: A Preliminary Investigation of Methods, Models, and Projects in the Integrated Assessment of Global Climatic Change. Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).University Center, Mich.. 11. Risbey, J., M. Kandlikar, and A. Patwardhan., 1996. Climatic Change, 34, 3-4, 369-395. 12. Rotmans, J., Van Asselt, M., 1996. Climate change, 34, 3-4, 327-336. 13. Rotmans, J., M. Hulme, and T.E. Downing., 1994. Global Environmental Change, 4,2, 97 124. 14. Alcamo, J., G.J.J. Kreileman, M. S. Krol, and G. Zuidema., 1994. "Modeling the Global Society biosphere climate System: Part 1: Model Description and Testing." In IMAGE 2.0: Integrated Modeling of Global Climate Change, ed. J. Alcamo. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 15. Alcamo, J., R. Shaw, and L. Hordijk, eds., 1990. The RAINS Model of Acidification: Science and Strategies in Europe. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 16. Ball, M., and H. Dowlatabadi., 1995. "The Role of Aerosols in Climate Change: Results from an Integrated Assessment Model (ICAM 2.0)." Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy. 17. Mariam, Y., 1995. Review and Selection of Modeling Methods in Pollution Abatement with Inclusion of Uncertainty. Mimeo. Economic Analysis Branch, Environment Canada, May. 18. Cohon, J.L., 1978. Multiobjective programming and planning. Academic Press, Inc., NY, NY . 19. Alcamo, J., and Bartnicki, J., 1990. Atmospheric Environment, 24A:2169-2189. 20. Battermann, S., and Amann, M., 1991. Environmental Management, 32,57-72. 21. Ellis, J.H., 1988. European J. Operations research, 35,365-377. 22. Ellis, J. H., 1990. European J. Operations research, 46,313-321. 23. Ellis, J. H., and Bowman, M.L., 1994. J. of Environmental Engineering, 120,273-290. 24. Ellis, J.H., McBean, E.A., Farquhar, G.J., 1985. Atm. Env., 19,925-937. 25. Ellis, J.H., McBean, E.A., Farquhar, G.J., 1986. Atm. Env., 20,501-511. 26. Forrester, J.W., 1971. World Dynamics.Wright-Allen Press, Cambridge, Mass. 27. Brunner, R.D., 1996. Climate Change, 32,121-147. 28. Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), 1995. Thematic Guide to Integrated Assessment Modeling of Climate Change. University Center, Mich. 29. Rubin, E.S., 1991. J.of the Air and Waste Management Association, 41, 914 21. 30. Edmonds, J.A., M.A. Wise, and C. MacCracken., 1994. Advanced Energy Technologies and Climate Change: An Analysis Using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). PNL 9798, UC 402. Richland, Wash.: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. 31. Maddison, D. 1994. "A Cost Benefit Analysis of Slowing Climate Change." Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE). London: University College London. 32. Hulme, M., S.C.B. Raper, and T.M.L. Wigley., 1994.”An Integrated Framework to Address Climate Change (ESCAPE) and Further Development of the Global and Regional Climate Modules (MAGICC)." In Integrative Assessment of Mitigation, Impacts, and Adaptation to Climate Change, ed. N. Nakicenovic, W.D. Nordhaus, R. Richels, and F.L. Toth. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Collaborative Paper, CP 94 9. Laxenburg, Austria: IIASA. 33. Nordhaus, W.D., and Z. Yang., 1995. RICE: A Regional Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Optimal Climate Change Policy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 34. Energy Modeling Forum., 1995. Second Round Study Design for EMF 14: Integrated Assessment for Climate Change. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University. 35. Environment Canada., 1990. The 1990 Canadian Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants & Acid Deposition Assessment report: Part 1, Executive Summary; & Part 4, Aquatic Effects. 36. Lam, D.C.L., C.W. Mayfield, D.A. Swayne and K. Hopkins., 1994. J. Biol. Systems, 2,499-517. 37. Lam, D.C.L., W.G. Booty, W.G., Wong, I., Kay, D., and Kerby, J., 1995. The RAISON decision support system: examples of applications. National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Contribution No. 95 151. 38. Lam, D.C.L., Puckett, K.J., Wong, I., Moran, M.D., Fenech, G., Jefferies, D.S., Olson, M.P., Whelpdale, D.M., McNicol, D., Mariam, Y.K.G., and Minns, C.K., 1998. Water Quality Res. J. Canada, 33, 1, 1-17.