Chichilnisky, Graciela (1978): Problems of market adjustments to occupational safety and health hazards. Published in: Techinical Report, Office of Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaulation and Research No. B-9-D-63788 (February 1978)
Download (5MB) | Preview
This paper analyses problems of labor market adjustments to occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards. It also presents analytical models for the eventual measurement and empirical analyses of factors effecting the level of OSH hazards in the workplace. This study does not pretend to deal with the regulatory problem in occupational terms. It nevertheless raises conceptual issues that may be relevant for regulatory strategy.
Section I contains a statement of the problem and an outline of the analysis. Section II discusses the concept of appropriate levels of OSH. Section II studies the role of the market: wage differentials that compensate for OSH hazards ; some characteristics of market allocations of wages and safety such as efficiency and distribution. Section IV studies market imperfections: market adjustments with imperfect information about OSH and about firms' actions regarding OSH; the quasi public good aspects of OSH; institutional rigidities such as lack of perfect mobility of workers; OSH externalities such as spillover effects of OSH on the families of workers, the community near the workplace and society as a whole; and also externalities in the production of OSH and of OSH information. Section V studies the role of the government; its objectives and instruments of OSH policies. Section VI discusses the role of labor unions. The results suggest that there is no standard 'correct policy' for OSH but a variety of policies are required.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Problems of market adjustments to occupational safety and health hazards|
|Keywords:||occupational safety; occupational health; occupational; OSH; hazards; occupational hazards; occupational safety health hazards; policy; regulation; strategy; employment; labor market; labour market; wage; compensated wage differentials; compensated wage; risk; information; asymmetric information; externalities; labour economics; labor economics; worker mobility; immobility; imperfect information; uncertainty; degree of uncertainty; social risk; risk aversion; unemployment; labour union; labor union|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General > J08 - Labor Economics Policies
K - Law and Economics > K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law > K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
|Depositing User:||Graciela Chichilnisky|
|Date Deposited:||31. Mar 2008 05:38|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 00:03|
Akerlof, G. "The Market for Lemmons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1972.
Arrow, K.J., "Alternative Approaches to the Study of Choice in Risk-Taking Situations," Econometrica, Oct. 1951, 404-37.
Essays in the Theory of Risk Bearing, Markham Publishing Co., 1971.
Social Choice and Individual Values, Second Edition. Yale University Press, 1955.
Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care, American Economic Review, Dec 1963, 941-73.
"Welfare Analysis of Changes in Health Coinsurance Rates" in The Role of Health Insurance in the Health Services Sector, (Richard N. Rosett, Ed.) National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1976.
Ashford, N.A. Crisis in the Workplace MIT press, Cambridge, Mass., 1976.
Auerbach, J. Unequal Justice: Lawyers and Social Change in Modern America. Oxford University Press, 1977.
Baumol, W.J. "On Taxation and the Control of Externalities," American Economic Review, June 1972, 307-22
_____ and W.E. Oates, "The USe of Standards and Prices for Protection of the Environment," Swedish Journal of Economics, MArch 1971, 42-54.
The Theory of Environmental Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1975.
Bureau of NAtional Affairs. The Job Safety and Health Act of 1970. Bureau of National Affairs, Washington, D.C., 1973.
OSHA and the Unions: Bargaining on Job safety and Health. Bureau of National Affairs, Washington, D.C., 1973.
Calabresi, G. The Cost of Accidents: A Legal and Economic Analysis. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1970.
Chelius, J.R. "The Control of Industrial Accidents: Economic theory and Empirical Evidence," Law and Contemporary Problems, 38 (1974), 700-729.
Chichilnisky, G. "SocIal Choice and the Topology of Spaces of Preferences," forthcoming Advances in Mathematics.
Chiswick, B. and J.A. O'Neil (eds.) HUman Resources and Income Distribution. W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., New York 1977.
Coase, R.H. "The Problem of Social COst," Journal of Law and Economics 3 (1960), 1-44.
Cornell, N., R. Noll and B. Weingast, "Safety Regulation in H. Owen and C.E. Schultze (eds.), Setting NAtional Priorities, Brookings Insti. 1976.
DiPietro, A. "An Analysis of the OSH Inspection Program in MAnufacturing Industries 1972-73," Draft Technical ANalysis Paper, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of LAbor, 1976.
Hitch, C.J. The Character of Research and Development in a Competitive Economy. The Rand Corporation, 1958.
Kunreuther, H. "Limited Knowledge and Insurance Protection," Public Policy, 1976.
Lowrance, W.W. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety. Los Altos, CaliforniA: William Kaufman, 1976.
Lucas, R.E.B. Working Conditions, Wage Rates and Human Capital. Ph.D. Dissertation, M.I.T. 1973.
MacKerron, G.S. Human Life and Safety in Relation to Technical Change: An Analytical Summary. Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, 1975.
Medeloff, John. An evaluation of the OSHA program's effect on workplace injury rates: Evidence from California through 1974. Report prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976.
Michigan Quality of Work Survey. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1969-70.
Miller, G.A. "The magical number seven. plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information, " The Psychological Review, March 1956, 81-97.
National Academy of Sciences (USA), National Research Council, Assembly of Life Sciences, Committee on Public Information in the Prevention of Occupational Cancer, Feb 1976, Washington, D.C.
National Commission on State Workman's Compensation Laws. Compendium on Workmen's Compensation. Washington, D.C. 1972.
Report on the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation LAws. Washington D.C., July 1972.
Supplemental Studies for the National Commission of State on Workmen's Compensation LAws. Vols, I-III, Washington, D.C., 1973.
Nelson, R.P. "The simple economics of basic scientific research." Journal of Political Economy, 1959.
The New York Academy of Sciences, Conference proceedings of the bicentennial conference on occupational carcinogenesis, 1976.
The New York Academy of Sciences, Occupational monitoring for genetic hazards (workship), 1976.
The Toxic Substance List. 1973 Edition, HEW, June 1973.
Oi, W.Y. "The economics of product safety," The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, Spring 1973.
"An essay on workmen's compensation and industrial safety," in Supplemental Studies for the NCSWCL, Vol I, 41-106.
"On the economics of industrial safety," Law and Contemporary Problems, 1974.
"On evaluating the effectiveness of the OSHA inspection program," Paper presented at the department of labor conference on evaluating OSHA, Annapolis, MD, March 18, 1975.
PArsons, D.O. "Specific human capital: An application to quit rates and layoff rates," Journal of Political Economy, 1972.
Roberts, M. and M. Spence, "Effluent charges and licenses under uncertainty," Working paper, Stanford University, 1975.
Rusell, L. "Pricing Industrial Accidents," Supplemental Studies for the National COmission on the State Workmen's Compensation LAws, Washington, D.C. 973.
Rder, H. F. Stafford and P. Stephen, "Labor, leisure and training over the life cycle," International Economic Review, October 1976.
Shabecoff, P. "The Woman who Turned OSHA Around," The New York Times, Feb 1978.
Sinclair, T.C., P. Mastrand and P. Newich. Human life and society in relation to technical change. Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, 1972.
Smith, RObert S. "Compensating wage differential and hazardous work," Technical Analysis Paper No. 5, Office of Evaluation, Dept. of Labor, Aug 1973.
"The estimated impact of injuries of OSHA's target industry program," COrnell University, undated.
"Evaluation the impact of OHSA on occupational safety and health," Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, Research, U.S. Department of Labor, April 1975.
"The feasibility of an 'Injury Tax' Approach to occupational safety," Law and Contemporary Problems 38 (1974) 730-744.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act: It's goals and achievements,American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, D.C., 1976.
Settle, R. and B. Weisbrod. "Government-imposed standards: Some normative and positive aspects," Working Paper, Undated.
Spence, M, "Consumer misinterpretations, product failure and producer liability," Department of Economics, Harvard Univ. (mimeo), 1977.
Spence, M. and R, Zeckhauser. "Insurance, information and individual action," The American Economic Review, May 1971.
Spence, A.M. "Monopoly quality and regulation," The Bell Journal of Economics, 1976.
Stafford, F.P. And M.S. Cohen. "A model of work effort and productive consumption," Journal of Economic Theory, 1974.
Thaler, R. and S. Rosen. "Estimation the value of saving a life: Evidence for the Labor Market," paper presented at NBER conference on income and wealth, household production and consumption, Washington, D.C., Nov. 3, 1973.
Tversky, A. and Kahmeman, D. "Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases," Science 185 (1974), 1124-1131.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Major Collective bargaining agreements in selected industries: Safety and health provisions before and after the occupational safety and health act of 1970. Report prepared by he Office of Wages and Industrial Relations for the Office of Occupational Health Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics Washington, D.C., Feb 1975.
U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Oversight and Proposed Amendments). Hearings (93rd Congress, 2nd Session), Washington, D.C.
U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Permanent select subcommittee on environmental problems affecting small business, subcommittee on environmental problems affecting small business, The effects of the administration of the OSH Act on Small Business. Hearing (93rd Congress, 2nd Session) Washington, D.C. 1974.
U.S. Dept. of labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Occupational illnesses by industry, 1972," Washington, D.C., 1974.
U.S. Dept. of Labor RFD/A 65-10, Oct 1975.
U.S. Dept. of Labor. Inflationary impact statement: Coke oven emissions. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, D.C., Feb 27, 1976.
U.S. Dept. of Labor. Inflationary Impact Statement: Inorganic Arsenic. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, D.C., undated.
U.S. Dept. of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Impact on Small Business, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, D.C., Washington, D.C., undated.
Viscusi, K.W. "Quit rates, compensating wage differentials and the job hazards: and empirical analysis of adaptive worker behavior," Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard, Univ., 1976.
Weitzman, M. "Optimal rewards for regulating economics activities," forthcoming American Economic Review.
"Prices versus Quantities," Review of Economic Studies, Oct. 1974, 477-92.
Zeckhauser, R. "Procedures for valuing lives," Public Policy, 1975.
___ and A. Nichols. "The Occupational Safety and Health Administration," An overview prepared for the senate committee on Government Operations, 1976.
Zubkoff, M. (ed.) Health: A Victim of Cause of Inflation? Published for the Milbank Memorial Fund by Prodist, New York, 1976.