Osipian, Ararat (2004): Corruption as a legacy of the medieval university: Financial affairs.
Download (224kB) | Preview
Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old universitas and modern universities have in common. One of the common features may be corruption and academic misconduct that can often bee seen in universities. The increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc as well as numerous other countries urges a better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic transformations. Corruption in higher education is deeply rooted in the organizational structure of each higher education institution. Corruption has a long history and a proud tradition. Corruption in higher education is an organic part of corruption overall, with its culture, traditions, functions, and mechanisms. The goal of this paper is to present a description of modern day higher education corruption from a historical perspective. This paper is based on the techniques of positive analysis along with some elements of comparative analysis, and withstands from normative or moral judgments. A well-structured description of higher education corruption in a historical context is helpful in developing strategies for its eradication or prevention. This paper first presents the concept of corruption as a historical category and then analyzes corrupt legacies at the stages of admission, teaching and learning, and graduation. It also addresses issues of funding, discrimination against foreign nationals, publishing, and state-university relations. The genesis of forms of corruption and the determination of corruption as such is understood in a changing historical context.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Corruption as a legacy of the medieval university: Financial affairs|
|Keywords:||corruption, medieval, misconduct, university|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Insititutions > I21 - Analysis of Education
K - Law and Economics > K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior > K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Insititutions > I22 - Educational Finance
|Depositing User:||Ararat Osipian|
|Date Deposited:||26. Apr 2008 02:18|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 13:52|
Berg, L., Hahn, H., & Schmidhauser, J. (1976). Corruption in the American Political System. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Birnbaum, R. (1988). How Colleges Work: The Cybernetics of Academic Organization and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Brender, A. (2004). Head of Japanese University Faces Charges of Defrauding Government. The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 13.
Britanka Prodala Devstvennost’ s Aukciona za 8,400 funtov [British Woman Sold Her Virginity on the Auction for 400 British Pounds]. Newsru. March 2004. Retrieved March 30, 2004 from www.newsru.com/world/21mar2004/prost.html
Britanskie Studentki Oplachivaut Uchebu, Zanimayas’ Prostituciey [British Students Pay for Their Study by Working as Prostitutes]. Newsru, April 2004. Retrieved April 30, 2004 from www.newsru.com/world/30apr2001/britishprostitutes.html
Brockliss, L., Denley, P., & Schmitt, C. (1981). History of Universities, Vol. I. London: Avebury.
Compayre, G. (1893). Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
DW-WORLD: 35 professorov universiteta Gamburga vystupili protiv prisvoeniya Putinu zvaniya pochetnogo doctora [DW-WORLD: 35 professors of the University of Hamburg Voted Against Conferring an Honorary Doctorate to Putin]. Retrieved July 19, 2004 from www.newsru.com/world/19jul2004/hamburg.html
Garvardskiy universitet podal isk protiv “Surgutneftegaza” [Harvard University has Initiated a Lawsuit against “Surgutneftegaz”]. Retrieved June 30, 2004 from www.newsru.com/30jun2004.html
Guriev, S. (2004). Red Tape and Corruption. Journal of Development Economics, 73(2), pp. 489-504.
Haskins, C. (1957). The Rise of The Universities. London: Cornell University Press.
Hill, C. (1972). The Radical Critics of Oxford and Cambridge in the 1650s. In J. Baldwin and R. Goldthwaite (Eds.). Universities in Politics: case Studies from the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
Honorary Doctors 2000. University of Oslo. Retrieved March 30, 2004 from http://www.uio.no/english/about_uio/honorary-doctors/2000/
Hyde, J. (1972). Commune, University, and Society in Early Medieval Bologna. In J. Baldwin and R. Goldthwaite (Eds.). Universities in Politics: case Studies from the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
I Sold Virginity to Dad Aged 44. News of the World. Retrieved March 21, 2004, from www.newsoftheworld.co.uk/story_pages/news2.shtml
Johnston, M. (1982). Political Corruption and Public Policy in America. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
Johnston, M. (1986). Right and Wrong in American Politics: Popular Concepts of Corruption. Polity, 18(3), pp. 367-391.
Kaminsky, H. (1972). The University of Prague in the Hussite Revolution: the Role of the Masters. In J. Baldwin and R. Goldthwaite (Eds.). Universities in Politics: case Studies from the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
Keller, M. (1978). Corruption in America: Continuity and Change. In A. Eisenstadt, A. Hoogenboom, and H. Trefousse. Before Watergate: Problems of Corruption in American Society. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College Press.
Key, V. (1936). The Techniques of Political Graft in the United States. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Libraries.
Kibre, P. (1948). The Nations in The Mediaeval Universities. Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America.
Kigotho, W. (2004). Nigerian University Revokes Thousands of Diplomas in Crackdown on Academic Fraud. The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 1.
Lasswell, H., & Rogow, A. (1963). Corruption, Power, and Rectitude. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maieru, A. (1993). University Training in Medieval Europe. New York: Brill.
Meeting at Moscow State Institute of International Relations. AzerTAg, Baku, 2004. Retrieved January 1, 2005, from http://www.ilham-aliyev.org/s07_meetings/_meeting_e.html?meeting_16_e.html
Niyazov Receives Honorary Doctorate from Malta University. The Times of Central Asia, Retrieved October 26, 2004 from http://www.times.kg/?c=5&d=112&dt=2004-01-05
Noonan, J. (1983). Bribery. In Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice. New York, NY: McMillan and Free Press.
Nye, J. (1967). Corruption and Political Development: a Cost-Benefit Analysis. American Political Science Review, 61(2), pp. 417-427.
Payne, P. (1975). The Corrupt Society: From Ancient Greece to Present-Day America. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Peters, J., & Welch, S. (1978). Political Corruption in America: A Search for Definitions and a Theory, or If Political Corruption is in the Mainstream of American Politics, Why Is It not in a Mainstream of American Politics Research? American Political Science Review, 72(3), pp. 974-984.
Piltz, A. (1981). The World of Medieval Learning. Basil: Blackwell.
Pochesni Profesory ta Doktory NaUKMA [Honorary Professors and Doctors of the National University Kiev-Mohyla Academy]. Retrieved January 1, 2005 from http://www.ukma.kiev.ua/ua/general/pochesni/index.php
Putin stanet pochetnym docotrom Gamburgskogo universiteta s bolshim trudom [Putin will Become an Honorary Doctor of the University of Hamburg with Big Difficulty]. Retrieved July 20, 2004 from www.newsru.com/world/20jul2004/hardly.html
Rait, R. (1931). Life in the Medieval University. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rashdall, H. (1936). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Salerno, Bologna, Paris. Vol. I. In B. Emden and M. Powicke (Eds.). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rashdall, H. (1936). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Scotland, etc. Vol. II. In B. Emden and M. Powicke (Eds.). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rashdall, H. (1936). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: English Universities – Student Life. Vol. III. In B. Emden and M. Powicke (Eds.). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rose-Ackerman, S. (1974). The Economics of Corruption. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University, Fels Discussion Paper #53.
Rose-Ackerman, S. (1978). Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Rose-Ackerman, S. (1999). Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sadovnichiy, V. (2001). O reforme i korrupcii v vysshem obrazovanii [About the Reform and Corruption in Higher Education]. NTV, 2001. Retrieved October 3, 2001, from www.ntvru.com/russia/03Oct2001/sadovnichiy_bribe.html
Sud Nyu-Yorka priostanovil process, nachaty Garvardom protiv “Surgutneftegaza” [The Court of New-York Postponed the Lawsuit Initiated by Harvard Against “Surgutneftegaz”]. Retrieved July 30, 2004 from www.newsru.com/world/30jul2004/ussa.html
Thelin, J. (1982). Higher Education and Its Useful Past. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Company.
V Rossii v 2003 godu roditeli za obrazovanie detey dali vziatok na 26,5 milliarda rubley [In Russia in 2003 Parents Paid 26.5 Billion Rubles in Bribes for Their Children’s Education]. Retrieved June 24, 2004 from www.newsru.com/russia/24jun2004/vzytki.html
Verger, J. (1972). The University of Paris at the End of the Hundred Years’ War. In J. Baldwin and R. Goldthwaite (Eds.). Universities in Politics: case Studies from the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
Verger, J. (2000). The First French Universities and the Institutionalization of Learning: Faculties, Curricula, Degrees. In J. Engen (Ed.). Learning Institutionalized: Teaching in the Medieval University. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.