Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Analyzing the Environmental Kuznets Curve for the EU countries: The role of ecological footprint

Destek, Mehmet Akif and Ulucak, Recep and Dogan, Eyüp (2018): Analyzing the Environmental Kuznets Curve for the EU countries: The role of ecological footprint. Published in: Environmental Science and Pollution Research No. 25 (20 August 2018): pp. 29387-29396.

[img]
Preview
PDF
MPRA_paper_106882.pdf

Download (318kB) | Preview

Abstract

A great majority of the EKC literature use CO2 emissions to proxy for environmental degradation. However, this is an important shortage in application of the EKC concept because environmental degradation cannot be captured by CO2 emissions only. By using a broader proxy, ecological footprint, this study aims to investigate the presence of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for the EU countries. The annual data from 1980 to 2013 is examined with second generation panel data methodologies which take into account the cross-sectional dependence among countries. The results show that there is U-shaped relationship between the real income and ecological footprint. In addition, non-renewable energy increases the environmental degradation while renewable energy and trade openness decrease the environmental degradation in the EU countries. Policy implications are further discussed.

UB_LMU-Logo
MPRA is a RePEc service hosted by
the Munich University Library in Germany.