Rena, Ravinder (2003): Green revolution: Indian agricultural experience – a paradigm for Eritrea. Published in: Eritrean Studies Review , Vol. 4, No. 1 (5. June 2004): pp. 103-130.
Download (143kB) | Preview
Food problem became more severe after the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, presenting a series challenges to India’s agricultural sector. Even during good harvest years, food imports remain high. A large segment of people were poor. To mitigate these problems, India adopted farming strategies under the “Green Revolution” in the mid 1960s. The application of modern farming technology, introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds, increased use of fertilizers, development and expansion of irrigation systems, extension of credit and educational services to farmers. These activities resulted in a drastic increase of farm products leading India to achieve self-sufficiency in food within a short period of time. The “Green Revolution” has contributed to Indian agriculture tremendously and transformed India from a starving nation to a food exporter. The activities that comprise the “Green Revolution” are worth emulating in the Eritrean environment. This paper explores the impact of the “Green Revolution” on Indian agricultural production with the aim of drawing lessons for Eritrea to modernize its agriculture and subsequently solve its food insecurity problem. The Indian experience serves as a model for Eritrea to achieve self-sufficiency in food.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Green revolution: Indian agricultural experience – a paradigm for Eritrea|
|Keywords:||Green Revolution, Agriculture and Technology, India, Eritrea, Food Security|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q16 - R&D ; Agricultural Technology ; Biofuels ; Agricultural Extension Services
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q55 - Technological Innovation
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q15 - Land Ownership and Tenure ; Land Reform ; Land Use ; Irrigation ; Agriculture and Environment
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A10 - General
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q18 - Agricultural Policy ; Food Policy
|Depositing User:||Ravinder Rena|
|Date Deposited:||30. Sep 2008 04:57|
|Last Modified:||21. May 2015 10:06|
Abraham, Kinfe, Why and How Africa is Underdeveloped (1995), African World Press Inc., Trenton, New Jersey.
Ahluwalia, I.J., Industrial Growth in India: Stagnation Since the Mid-Sixties (1985), Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Anderson, P.P. and P.B.R. Hazell (1985) The Impact of the Green Revolution and Prospects for the Future (1985), Washington, D.C. (Reprinted from Food Reviews International).
Bardhan, P., The Political Economy of Development in India (1984), Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
Beckman, B., “State and Capitalist Development in Nigeria,” in Review of African Political Economy, 23 (January-April, 1982).
Bhalla, G.S., “Transfer of Technology and Agricultural Development in India”, Economic and Political Weekly, (1979).
Blyn, G., Agricultural Trends in India: 1891-1947 (1966), University of Pennsylvania.
Byres, T.(1981) “The New Technology, Class formation and Class Action in the Indian Countryside,” in the Journal of Peasant Studies, 8(2), (January, 1981).
Dantwala, M.L., “Agriculture Policy in India Since Independence”, in C. H. Shah (ed.), Agriculture Development of India: Poverty and Problems, (1979), Orient Longman, New Delhi.
____________, “Technology Growth and Equity”, in J.W. Meller and G. Desai (sds.) Agricultural Change and Rural Poverty, (1986), International Food Policy Research Center, Washington, D.C.
De Janvry, A. and Subbarao, K., Agricultural Price Policy and Income Distribution in India, Studies in Economic Planning (1986), Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
F.A.O., Strengthening the Agricultural Research and Extension in Eritrea, GCP/ERI/001/ITA (1988), Asmara. Government of India, Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Community Development, and Cooperation (1967), New Delhi
Lele, U., “Marketing and Pricing of Food Grains”, in C. H. Shah (Ed.), Agriculture Development of India: Poverty and Problems, (1979), Orient Longman, New Delhi.
Lipton, M. and C. Heald, The EC and African Food Strategies (December 1984), Center for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels.
Lipton, M.L., “Research and Design of a Policy Frame in Agriculture”, in T. Rose (ed.), Crisis and Recovery in Sub-Saharan Africa, (1985), Development Center, OECD, Paris. Mellor, J.W. and R.H. Adams Jr., “The New Political Economy of Food and Agriculture Development,” in Food Policy, (1986).
Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Eritrea, Agricultural Development Program Report, (2000), Asmara.
____________________, Agricultural Sector Policy and Strategy Framework: Background and Context Development and Management, (November 2002), Asmara.
____________________, The National Action Programme for Eritrea to Combat Desertification and Mitigate the Effects of Drought, (January 2002), Asmara.
Mishra, S., “On the Reliability of Pre-independence Agricultural Statistics in Bombay and Punjab,” in The Indian Economic and Social History Review, 20(2), (April-June 1983).
Nair, K,.(1983) Transforming Traditionally: Land and Labour Use in Agriculture in Asia and Africa (1983), Allied Publishers, New Delhi.
Negash, Amanuel, et al, Soil Conservation in Eritrea: Some case Studies Technical Report No.23 (2000), Swedish International Development Corporation Agency (SIDA), Nairobi.
Rena, Ravinder, “Eritrean Agriculture: Prospects and Challenges,” in Eritrea Profile (a Weekly Bulletin of News and Views) (June 15, 2002), Asmara _____________, “Challenges of Research in Eritrea,” in Eritrea Profile (May 31, 2003); also in www.shabait.com/articles/publish/article_106.html
_____________, Hand Book on Eritrean Economy (2003, unpublished material), Commercial College, Asmara.
Roy, Sumit, Agriculture and Technology in Developing Countries: India and Nigeria (1990), Sage Publications, London.
Sarma, J.S., “Growth and Equity: Policies and Implementation in Indian Agriculture,” in Research Report No.28. (Novemberr 1981), Washington, D.C.
Tesfa G. Gebremedhin, Beyond Survival: The Economic Challenges of Agriculture and Development in Post-Independent Eritrea (1996), The Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Tesfagiorgis, Gebre Hiwet (ed), Emergent Eritrea: Challenges of Economic Development (1993), The Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
The Government of India, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Review of the Food and Scarcity Situation in India (July 1967), New Delhi.
___________________, New Strategy for Agriculture Development (1967), New Delhi.
United Nations, Food Security in Eritrea: Issues and Recommendations, (November 1998), Asmara.
Warriner, D., Land Reform in Principle and Practice (1969), Butler and Tanner, London.
World Bank Document, Eritrea: Options and Strategies for Growth (1994), Washington, D.C.