Veenhoven, Ruut (1990): Inequality in happiness: inequality in countries compared across countries.
Download (1MB) | Preview
Cross-national studies on happiness have focused on differences in level of happiness. The focus of this paper is on spread in happiness in the nation, also called ‘inequality in happiness’. Inequality in happiness in nations can be measured by the size of the standard deviation of responses to survey questions about the ‘overall appreciation of one’s life-as-a-whole’. This paper considers spread in happiness in 28 countries around 1980. Contrary to notions of a ‘divided’ society none of these countries shows a bi-modal distribution of happiness. All distribution are uni-modal, but the distributions are not equally flat. There are considerable differences in size of the standard deviations. These differences are not a statistical artifact of variation in level of happiness and appear quite constant through time. Inequality in happiness appears to be greater in the socio-economically most unequal countries and smaller in politically democratic and economically developed nations. Contrary to expectation, inequality in happiness appears to be more closely linked to social equality among rich nations than among not-so-rich ones.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Inequality in happiness: inequality in countries compared across countries|
|Keywords:||happiness; inequality; cross-national|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D3 - Distribution > D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I31 - General Welfare, Well-Being
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries
|Depositing User:||Ruut Veenhoven|
|Date Deposited:||19. May 2011 13:34|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 09:45|
Bertrand, A.F.M. (1981)Politieke democratie en welzijn een operationalisering door middel van politieke en sociale indicatoren op het niveau van 115 staten. Samson, Alphen a/d Rijn
Campbell, A. (1981) The sense of well being in America, McGraw Hill, New York
Cantril, H. (1965)The pattern of human concern. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick (NJ)
Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1987) Environmental and dispositional influences on well-being: Longitudinal follow-up of an American national sample. British J. of Psychology, p. 299-306
Chin-Hon-Foei, S. (1989) Life satisfaction in the EC-countries 1974-1984. In ‘Did the crisis really hurt? Effects of the 1980/1982 economic recession on satisfaction, mental health and mortality ed. by Veenhoven R., University Press Rotterdam, p 24- 43
Easterlin, R.A. (1974) Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence, In “Nations and households in economic growth”, ed. by David P.A. & Melvin, California: Stanford University Press, p. 98-125.
Gallup, G.H. (1976) Human Needs and Satisfactions: A global survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1976/1977, p. 459-467.
Gastril, R.P. (1987) Freedom in the work Political rights and civil liberties 1986-1987, Greenwood Press, New York
Glatzer, W. & Zapf, W. (1984) Lebensqualät in der Bundesrepublik.: Objektieve Lebensbedingungen und subjectives Wohlbefinden. Frankfurt/Main, Campus Verlag.
Halman, L e.a. (1987) Traditie, secularisatie en individualisering. University Press, Tilburg.
Hewitt, C. (1977) The effect of political democracy and social democracy on equality in industrial society: a cross-national comparison. American Sociological Review vol.42 p. 450-464
Hollingshead, A.B. & Redlich, F.C. (1965) Social stratification and psychiatric disorders. In: Proshanski H.M. & Seidenberg, B., eds ‘Basic studies in Social Psychology New York, Holt , p. 366-373.
IMF (1986) Manual of Government Financial Statistics, Washington.
Inglehart, R. (1971) The silent revolution in Europe: International change in post-industrial societies, American Political Science Review, vol. 61, p 991-1017.
Kurian, G.T. (1979) The book of world rankings, Macmillan Reference Books, London and Basingstoke.
Nemeth, R.I. & Smith, D.A. (1985) International trade and world system structure: a multiple network analysis. Review vol. 8 , p. 517-560
Nolan, P.D. (1983) Status in the world system, income equality and economic growth. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 89, 1983, p 410 419
OECD (1988) Economic Outlook
Ouweneel, P. & Veenhoven, R. (1990) Cross-national differences in happiness; cultural bias or societal quality? In: Procedings of the European Conference for Cross-Cultural Psychology. Amsterdam, Zwets & Zeitlinger
Schulz, W., Koltringer, R., Norden, G. & Tuchler, H. (1985) Lebensqualität& in Ostenreich. Wien, Inst. für Soziologie und Wirtschaft
Stephens, J.D. (1979) The transition from capitalism to socialism. London.
McMillan Taylor, C.L & Jodice, D.A. (1988) World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators. New Haven, Yale University Press
Tellegen, A. & Lykken, D.T. e.a. (1988) Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 54 , p 1031-1041.
Veenhoven, R. (1984) Conditions of Happiness, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic
Veenhoven, R. (1987) Single living and happiness: Does happiness increase marriage chances? Gedrag en Gezondheid, vol. 15, p. 107-177
Veenhoven. R. (1987) Cultural bias in ratings of Perceived life quality. Social Indicators Research, vol. 18, p. 329-334
Veenhoven, R. (1990) World Database of Happiness, Catalog of Happiness Distributions in Nations, Erasmus University Rotterdam. The Netherlands.
Wallerstein, I. (1974) The modern world system. New York , Academic Press