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أثر التغيرات الإقليمية والعالمية على التجارة الزراعية البينية العربية

Soliman, Ibrahim (2021): أثر التغيرات الإقليمية والعالمية على التجارة الزراعية البينية العربية. Published in: Arab League Council of Arab Economic Unity, Cairo, Egypt (April 2021)

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Abstract

There is a need to develop qualitatively the volume of demand and products by spreading awareness towards the consumption of other products such as cheeses and mixing dairy with fruits as juices served in school canteens such as the Indian experience instead of carbonated water, reducing production costs by reducing waste, increasing exports and developing their quality to suit the non-Gulf Arab market such as the large-scale irrigation sucking market. This recommendation has been implemented and two major companies have been opened in the Egyptian market, "Almarai and Danone", the latter of which is a joint investment with Saudi Arabia's Al-Safi Company, the largest dairy producer there, but sustainable development experts have questioned the feasibility of this economic activity as the export of dairy products includes the export of a rare resource, fresh water, which exceeds the costs of this activity. For social as a natural resource export return, where experts have seen the production and processing of tons of dairy consuming 500 cubic meters of water, a take into account the process of spraying cattle with water spray in the summer in the barns to avoid sweltering heat, and the value of milk returned from fermented and pasteurized milk in winter at the peak time of the production Egypt achieved terms of trade in its favor in thirteen years, with 82% of the years of study, and the years in which it did not give positive values to the index are the years 2007, 2006, 2001, Lebanon, Syria and the UAE come in third place in terms of agricultural trade conditions where the relative frequency of positive years reached 76%, and in fourth place Algeria and Saudi Arabia where Their terms of trade were positive in 53% of the years of study, followed by Iraq and Jordan, where they achieved positive terms of trade in 41% of the years of study, and remarkably both Morocco and Sudan came in sixth place with Kuwait, where agricultural trade terms were in their favor in 24% of the period of study. Even though their agricultural sector characterized by the relative abundance of land and water resources, as well as noting that Tunisia comes in last place where the conditions of agricultural trade were in favor of it in only 12% of the years of study. This indicator indicates the distinctiveness of the foreign trade policy in Palestine and Egypt despite the repressive policies and influence of the Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and we find no justification for this except The Palestinian human being was distinguished, and Egypt and Syria, despite the effects of the Arab Spring revolutions since 2011, had trade conditions in their favor for most of the study period, including the years following the Arab Spring revolutions. The response of the exchange rate of the exporting country to the importing markets is negative, which means that the floating the currency ), leads to a decrease in the price of the commodity in the imported ASU, and then increase exports from it, which increases the competitiveness of that commodity in the imported markets. With other countries exporting to the same markets, which increases the competitiveness of Egyptian fruits in Arab markets with other countries exporting to the same markets. The response of the value of the gross domestic product of the importing State is positive to the value of the exports of the exporter State concerned of the commodity under study, which means that the increase in the gross domestic product of the importing States increases the demand for the commodity under study because of the increase in the purchasing power of consumers, The response of the value of the gross domestic product of the exporting country is positive to the value of its exports of the commodity under study, as the increase in GDP means the improvement of the strength of the Egyptian economy, and then the increase in the ability to dress up production and quality as a result of technological progress, which stimulates the increase in exports of the commodity under study. The response of the value of exports of agricultural and food commodities to bilateral agreements have had a negative impact on those exports to the markets. This is due to the fact that in the first decade of their implementation bilateral agreements excluded the exemption of major goods exchanged between the two countries from customs tax reduction, and even in the medium term the bilateral agreements provide for the gradual reduction of the rest of the goods as the two countries deem appropriate, and the developments of political relations play a role in this regard, and the main Arab agricultural countries in the basket of Arab exports are mostly located near the minimum limit of the middle income category as classified by the World Bank, and then Customs duty and tax revenues are an important source of national income, so it is not easy to cede this part of the sucking of direct monetary income.

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