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Углеродный рынок и климатические проекты: перспективы и возможности для Алтайского края

Pomogaev, Vitalii (2021): Углеродный рынок и климатические проекты: перспективы и возможности для Алтайского края.

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Abstract

Scientific and experimental data, mathematical modeling of climate change confirm the inevitability of warming as a result of anthropogenic impact. Agriculture, and especially crop production, is the most sensitive to climate change, in connection with which the world-famous practices for preventing and combating the effects of climate change in agriculture have become actively used in Russia: mitigation, adaptation and food monitoring. At the same time, agriculture is both a global sink and the world's third largest emitter of CO2. All together, this gives rise to a new trend in agriculture – climate-optimized agriculture (the UN version of the name). One of the tools for its implementation are climate projects based on geoengineering technologies. Of all the known methods of geoengineering, the most attractive are those related to natural technologies: based on photosynthesis and carbon storage tanks in the form of soil and biomass. In the Altai Territory in recent decades, there has been an increase in the temperature of the warm season, which is not compensated by an increase in precipitation, which leads to the desiccation of the territory. Arable land is being reduced and the proportion of fallow land (including degraded) is increasing. There is a reduction in the forests of the Forestry of the region. When planning climate projects, it is necessary to take into account two biogeochemical climate-regulating factors of terrestrial ecosystems in the region: 1) the rate of removal of carbon from the atmosphere; 2) reserves and stability of deposited carbon derived from the biogeochemical cycle. To do this, it is recommended to conduct full-scale experiments on the territory where it is breaded before the start of the climate project. The total cost of carbon sequestration by the ecosystems of the region amounted to 2782.7 million rubles, and the potential of the territories of the region is very unequal. This should be taken into account when planning climate projects in the region. It is advisable at the regional level to have a decarbonization strategy for agriculture (including subsidiary support measures) that takes into account the prospects for changing natural and climatic conditions. It is extremely important to develop a system of measures to train industry workers in both low-carbon farming methods and new rules for the functioning of the economy in conditions of adaptation to climate change and the maintenance of "green" standards.

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