Tuan, Tran Hu and Lindhjem, Henrik (2008): Meta-analysis of nature conservation values in Asia & Oceania: Data heterogeneity and benefit transfer issues.
Download (305kB) | Preview
We conduct a meta-analysis (MA) of around 100 studies valuing nature conservation in Asia and Oceania. Dividing our dataset into two levels of heterogeneity in terms of good characteristics (endangered species vs. nature conservation more generally) and valuation methods, we show that the degree of regularity and conformity with theory and empirical expectations is higher for the more homogenous dataset of contingent valuation of endangered species. For example, we find that willingness to pay (WTP) for preservation of mammals tends to be higher than other species and that WTP for species preservation increases with income. Increasing the degree of heterogeneity in the valuation data, however, preserves much of the regularity, and the explanatory power of some of our models is in the range of other MA studies of goods typically assumed to be more homogenous (such as water quality). Subjecting our best MA models to a simple test forecasting values for out-of-sample observations, shows median (mean) forecasting errors of 24 (46) percent for endangered species and 46 (89) percent for nature conservation more generally, approaching levels that may be acceptable in benefit transfer for policy use. We recommend that the most prudent MA practice is to control for heterogeneity in regressions and sensitivity analysis, rather than to limit datasets by non-transparent criteria to a level of heterogeneity deemed acceptable to the individual analyst. However, the trade-off will always be present and the issue of acceptable level of heterogeneity in MA is far from settled
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Meta-analysis of nature conservation values in Asia & Oceania: Data heterogeneity and benefit transfer issues|
|Keywords:||Valuation; biodiversity; Asia; meta-analysis; meta-regression; benefit transfer|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation > Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
H - Public Economics > H4 - Publicly Provided Goods > H41 - Public Goods
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services ; Biodiversity Conservation ; Bioeconomics ; Industrial Ecology
|Depositing User:||Henrik Lindhjem|
|Date Deposited:||09. Nov 2008 06:32|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 10:36|
Adhikari, B., W. Haider, O. Gurung, M. Poudyal, B. Beardmore, D. Knowler and P. Van Beukering (2005), 'Economic incentives and poaching of the one-horned Indian rhinoceros in Nepal: Stakeholder Analysis', PREM Working paper.
Amirnejad, H., S. Khalilian, M. H. Assareh and M. Ahmadian (2006), 'Estimating the existence value of north forests of Iran by using a contingent valuation method', Ecological Economics 58(4): 665-675.
Amponin, J. A. R., M. E. C. Bennagen, S. Hess and J. D. S. d. Cruz (2007), 'Willingness to pay for watershed protection by domestic water users in Tuguegarao City, Philippines', PREM 07/06 Working paper.
Arin, T. and R. A. Kramer (2002), 'Divers' willingness to pay to visit marine sanctuaries: an exploratory study', Ocean Coastal Manage. 45(2-3): 171-183.
Bandara, D. and C. Tisdell (2004), 'The net benefit of saving the Asian elephant: a policy and contingent valuation study', Ecological Economics 48: 93- 107.
Bandara, R. and C. Tisdell (2005), 'Changing Abundance of Elephants and Willingness to Pay for their Conservation', Journal of Environmental Management 76: 47-59.
Bateman, I. J. and A. P. Jones (2003), 'Contrasting conventional with multi-level modeling approaches to meta-analysis: Expectation consistency in UK woodland recreation values', Land Economics 79(2): 235-258.
Bennett, J., M. Morrison and R. Blamey (1998), 'Testing the validity of responses to contingent valuation questioning', Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 42(2): 131-148.
Bennett, J. W. (1984), 'Using Direct Questioning to Value the Existence Benefits of Preserved Natural Areas ', Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics 28(2/3): 136-152.
Bergstrom, J. C. and L. O. Taylor (2006), 'Using meta-analysis for benefits transfer: Theory and practice', Ecological Economics 60: 351-360.
Blamey, R., J. Gordon and R. Chapman (1999), 'Choice Modelling: Assessing the Environmental Values of Water Supply Options', Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 43(3): 337 - 357.
Bogahawatte, C. (1999). Forestry Policy, Non-timber Forest Products and the Rural Economy in the Wet Zone Forests in Sri Lanka. Research report, EPPSEA,
Boyle, K. J. (2003), 'Contingent valuation in practice', in P. A. Champ, K. J. Boyle and T. C. Brown, eds, A primer on nonmarket valuation. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Brander, L. M., R. J. G. M. Florax and J. E. Verrmaat (2006), 'The Empirics of Wetland Valuation: A Comprehensive Summary and a Meta-Analysis of the Literature', Environmental & Resource economics 33: 223-250.
Brander, L. M., P. van Beukering and H. Cesar (2007), 'The recreational value of coral reefs: a meta-analysis', Ecological Economics 63(1): 209-218.
Brouwer, R. (2000), 'Environmental value transfer: state of the art and future prospects', Ecol. Econ. 32(1): 137-152.
Butry, D. T. and S. K. Pattanayak (2001). Economic Impacts of Tropical Forest Conservation: The Case of Logger Households around Ruteng Park, Environment and Natural Resource Economics Program, Research Triangle Institute, North Carolina
Calderon, M. M., L. D. Camacho, M. G. Carandang, J. T. Dizon, L. L. Rebugio and N. L. Tolentino (2005). A Water User Fee For Households in Metro Manila, Philippines. EEPSEA research report, No. 2005-RR2,
Cameron, T. A. and J. Quiggin (1994), 'Estimation Using Contingent Valuation Data From A Dichotomous Choice With Follow-Up Questionnaire', J.Environ.Econ.Manage. 27(3): 218-234.
Campbell, H. P. and C. R. M. Reid (2000), 'Consumption Externalities in a Commercial Fishery: The Queensland Beam Trawl Fishery', Economic Record 76(232): 1-14.
Carr, L. and R. Mendelsohn (2003), 'Valuing Coral Reefs: A Travel Cost Analysis of the Great Barrier Reef', Ambio 32(5): 353-357.
Carson, R. T., N. E. Flores, K. M. Martin and J. L. Wright (1996), 'Contingent valuation and revealed preference methodologies: Comparing the estimates for quasi-public goods', Land Economics 72(1): 80-99.
Carson, R. T. and M. Hanemann (2005), 'Contingent valuation', in K.-G. Mäler and J. R. Vincent, eds, Handbook of Environmental Economics, Volume 2. Elsevier.
Carson, R. T., L. Wilks and D. Imber (1994), 'Valuing The Preservation Of Australia Kakadu Conservation Zone', Oxf. Econ. Pap.-New Ser. 46: 727-749.
Chang, K. and Y. Ying (2005), 'External Benefits of Preserving Agricultural Land: Taiwan's Rice Fields', The Social Science Journal 42: 285-293.
Chen, W., H. Hong, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, X. Hou and M. Raymond (In press), 'Recreation Demand and Economic Value: An Application of Travel Cost Method for Xiamen Island', China Economic Review.
Chen, Y. (1998). Biodiversity in the Framework of Ecological Economics. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin Milwaukee:
Choe, K. A., D. Whittington and D. T. Lauria (1996), 'The economic benefits of surface water quality improvements in developing countries: A case study of Davao, Philippines', Land Econ. 72(4): 519-537.
Cushman, C. (2004). External costs from increased island visitation: case study from Southern Thailand, Department of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts
Day, B. and S. Mourato (2002), 'Valuing River Water Quality in China ', in D. Pearce, C. Pearce and C. Palmer, eds, Valuing the Environment in Developing Countries: Case Studies. Edward Elgar.
Desvousges, W. H., F. R. Johnson and H. S. Banzhaf (1998), Environmental policy analysis with limited information: Principles and applications of the transfer method. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Do, N. T. (2007). Impacts of dykes on wetland values in Vietnam’s mekong river delta: a case study in the plain of reeds. Research report submitted to EEPSEA, IDRC,
Ekanayake, E. R. M. and P. Abeygunawardena (1994), 'Valuation of Conservation Commodity of the Sinharaja Forest: Towards Total Economic Value', Sri Lanka Journal of Agricultural Economics 2(1): 115-129.
Engel, S. (2002), 'Benefit Function Transfer versus Meta-analysis as Policy-Making Tools: A Comparison', in R. J. G. M. Florax, P. Nijkamp and K. G. Willis, eds, Comparative environmental economic assessment. Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar, pp. 133-53.
Eom, Y.-S. and D. M. Larson (2006), 'Valuing housework time from willingness to spend time and money for environmental quality improvements', Review of the Economics of the Household 4: 205-227.
Flatley, G. and J. Bennet (1995). International Values of Tropical Forest Conservation: A Cross-cultural Contingent Valuation Experiment. Perth, Western Australia,
Flatley, G. W. and J. W. Bennet (1996), 'Using Contingent Valuation to Determine Australian Tourists' Values for Forest Conservation in Vanuatu', Economic Analysis and Policy 26(2): 111-127.
Fleischer, A. and Y. Tsur (2000), 'Measuring the recreational value of agricultural landscape', Eur Rev Agric Econ 27(3): 385-398.
Fromm, O. (2000), 'Ecological structure and functions of biodiversity as elements of its total economic value', Environmental and Resource Economics 16(3): 303-328.
Glass, G. V., B. McGaw and M. L. Smith (1981), Meta-analysis in Social Research. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Gong, Y. (2004). Distribution of Benefits and Costs among Stakeholders of a Protected Area: An Empirical Study from China. EEPSEA Research Report 3, IDRC
Greiner, R. and J. Rolfe (2004), 'Estimating consumer surplus and elasticity of demand of tourist visitation to a region in North Queensland using contingent valuation', Tourism Economics 10(3): 317-328.
Gundimeda, H. and V. Kathuria (2003), 'Estimation of Economic Value of Water scarcity and quality in Chennai, India: The Hedonic Approach', South Asian Network of Economic Initiatives Project.
Guo, Z., X. Xiao, Y. Gan and Y. Zheng (2001), 'Ecosystem functions, services and their values - a case study in Xingshan County of China', Ecological Economics 38(1): 141-154.
Hadker, N., S. Sharma, A. David and T. R. Muraleedharan (1997), 'Willingness-to-pay for Borivli National Park: Evidence from a contingent valuation', Ecol. Econ. 21(2): 105-122.
Hammit, J. K., J.-T. Liu and J.-L. Liu (2001), 'Contingent Valuation of a Taiwanese Wetland', Environment and Development Economics 6: 259-268.
Harder, D. S., R. Labao and F. I. Santos (2006). Saving the Philippine eagles: How much will this cost and are Filipinos willing to pay for it? Singapore
Hoehn, J. P. (2006), 'Methods to address selection effects in the meta regression and transfer of ecosystem values', Ecological Economics 60(2): 389-398.
Hundloe, T. (1990), 'Measuring the Value of the Great Barrier Reef', Australian Parks and Recreation 26(3): 11-15.
Indab, A. (2006). Rationalizing WTP for whale shark conservation in Sorsogon province. Cebu, the Philippines
Isangkura, A. (1998). Environmental Valuation: An Entrance Fee System for National Parks in Thailand. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, IDRC
Jacobsen, J. B., J. H. Boiesen, B. J. Thorsen and N. Strange (2007), 'What’s in a name? The use of quantitative measures versus ‘Iconised’ species when valuing biodiversity', Environmental & Resource Economics 39(3): 247-263.
Jacobsen, J. B. and N. Hanley (2007). Are there income effects on global willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation? Working Paper.
Jakobsson, K. M. and A. K. Dragun (2001), 'The Worth of a Possum: Valuing Species with the Contingent Valuation Method', Environmental and Resource Economics 21: 287-302.
Jianjun, J. (2006). Economic valuation of the Black-faced Spoonbill conservation in Macao. Singapore
Jianjun, J., A. Indab, O. Nabangchang, T. D. Thuy, D. Harder and R. Subade (2006). WTP for Marine Turtle Conservation: A Cross-country Comparison in Asia
Jim, C. Y. and W. Y. Chen (2006), 'Recreation - Amenity Use and Contingent Valuation of Urban Greenspaces in Guangzhou, China', Landscape and Urban Planning 75(1-2): 81-96.
Johnston, R. J., E. Y. Besedin, R. Iovanna, C. J. Miller, R. F. Wardwell and M. H. Ranson (2005), 'Systematic variation in willingness to pay for aquatic resource improvements and implications for benefit transfer: a meta-analysis', Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 53(2-3): 221-248.
Johnston, R. J., E. Y. Besedin and M. H. Ranson (2006), 'Characterizing the effects of valuation methodology in function-based benefits transfer', Ecological Economics 60(2): 407-419.
Kahneman, D. and J. L. Knetsch (1992), 'Valuing Public-Goods - The Purchase Of Moral Satisfaction', Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 22(1): 57-70.
Khan, H. (2004). Demand of eco-tourism: estimating recreational benefits from the Margalla Hills national park in the northern Pakistan,
Kohlin, G. (2001), 'Contingent valuation in project planning and evaluation: the case of social forestry in Orissa, India', Environment and Development Economics 6(02): 237-258.
Kontoleon, A. and T. Swanson (2003), 'The Willingness to Pay for Property Rights for the Giant Panda: Can a Charismatic Species Be an Instrument for Nature Conservation?' Land Economics 79(4): 483-499.
Kristofersson, D. and S. Navrud (2007), 'Can Use and Non-Use Values be Transferred Across Countries?' in S. Navrud and R. Ready, eds, Environmental Value Transfer: Issues and Methods. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kriström, B. and P. Riera (1996), 'Is the income elasticity of environmental improvements less than one?' Environmental and Resource Economics 7: 45-55.
Kuosmanen, T., E. Nillesen and J. Wesseler (2003). Does Ignoring Multi-Destination Trips in the Travel Cost Method Cause a Systematic Downward Bias?
Kwak, S. J., S. H. Yoo and S. Y. Han (2003), 'Estimating the public's value for urban forest in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea: A contingent valuation study', Urban Studies 40(11): 2207-2221.
Lee, C.-K. and S.-Y. Han (2002), 'Estimating the Use and Preservation Values of National Parks' Tourism Resources Using a Contingent Valuation Method', Tourism Management 23: 531-540.
Lee, C.-K. and J. W. Mjelde (2007), 'Valuation of ecotourism resources using a contingent valuation method: The case of the Korean DMZ', Ecological Economics 63: 511-520.
Lee, C. K. (1997), 'Valuation of nature-based tourism resources using dichotomous choice contingent valuation method', Tourism Management 18(8): 587-591.
Lee, H.-C. and H.-S. Chun (1999), 'Valuing environmental quality change on recreational hunting in Korea: A contingent valuation analysis', Journal of Environmental Management 57(1): 11-20.
Lindhjem, H. (2007), '20 Years of stated preference valuation of non-timber benefits from Fennoscandian forests: A meta-analysis', Journal of Forest Economics 12(4): 251-277.
Lindhjem H and Navrud S (2008a) Asking for Individual or Household Willingness to Pay for Environmental Goods: Implication for aggregate welfare measures. Forthcoming in Environmental and Resource Economics.
Lindhjem H and Navrud S (2008b) Internet CV surveys - a cheap, fast way to get large samples of biased values?, Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Lindhjem, H. and S. Navrud (2008c), 'How Reliable are Meta-Analyses for International Benefit Transfer?' Ecological Economics 66(2-3): 425-435.
Lockwood, M. (1996), 'Non-compensatory preference structures in non-market valuation of natural area policy', Aust. J. Agric. Econ. 40(2): 85-101.
Lockwood, M. (1999), 'Preference structures, property rights, and paired comparisons', Environmental and Resource Economics 13(1): 107-122.
Lockwood, M. and D. Carberry (1998 ). Stated Preference Surveys of Remnant Native Vegetation Conservation, Johnstone Centre, Albury, NSW
Lockwood, M. and K. Tracy (1995), 'Nonmarket Economic Valuation Of An Urban Recreation Park', Journal of Leisure Research 27(2): 155-167.
Loomis, J. (2006), 'Use of contingent values of wildlife and habitat preservation in policy and cost-benefit analysis', in A. Alberini and J. R. Kahn, eds, Handbook on contingent valuation. Edward Elgar.
Loomis, J., M. Lockwood and T. Delacy (1993), 'Some Empirical-Evidence On Embedding Effects In Contingent Valuation Of Forest Protection', Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 25(1): 45-55.
Loomis, J. B. (1992), 'The Evolution Of A More Rigorous Approach To Benefit Transfer - Benefit Function Transfer', Water Resources Research 28(3): 701-705.
Loomis, J. B. and D. S. White (1996), 'Economic benefits of rare and endangered species: Summary and meta-analysis', Ecological Economics 18(3): 197-206.
Maharana, I., S. C. Rai and E. Sharma (2000), 'Valuing ecotourism in a sacred lake of the Sikkim Himalaya, India', Environmental Conservation 27(3): 269-277.
Manoka, B. (2001). Existence Value: A Re-appraisal and Cross-Cultural Comparison. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) Research Report No. 2001-RR1, IDRC,
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), Synthesis Report. Washington DC: Island Press.
Moeltner, K., K. Boyle and R. W. Paterson (2007), 'Meta-analysis and benefit transfer for resource valuation - addressing classical challenges with Bayesian modeling', Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 53: 250-269.
Moeltner, K. and R. Rosenberger (2008). Meta-Regression and Benefit Transfer: Data Space, Model Space, and the Quest for ‘Optimal Scope’
Morrison, M., J. Bennett, R. Blamey and J. Louviere (2002), 'Choice modeling and tests of benefit transfer', Am. J. Agr. Econ. 84(1): 161-170.
Mourato, S. (2002), 'Valuing Improvements to Sanitation in Malaysia', in D. Pearce, C. Pearce and C. Palmer, eds, Valuing the Environment in Developing Countries: Case Studies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 67 - 113.
Nabangchang, O. (2006). Motivations for Charitable Behavior for Protection of Wildlife and Endangered Species of Thailand.
Nallathiga, R. and R. B. Paravastu (2004). Benefit Estimation of River Water Quality Conservation Using Contingent Valuation Survey: a Case-Study in the Yamuna River Sub-basin. Budapest, Hungary
Nam, M. V., N. T. Nhan, B. V. Trihn and P. L. Thong (2001). Forest Management Systems in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. EEPSEA research report,
Navrud, S. and R. Ready, Eds. (2007), Environmental Value Transfer: Issues and Methods, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Naylor, R. and M. Drew (1998), 'Policy Options: Valuing mangrove resources in Kosrae, Micronesia', Environment and Development Economics 3: 471-490.
Nillesen, E., J. Wesseler and A. Cook (2005), 'Estimating the Recreation-Use Value for Hiking in Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia', Environmental Management 36(2): 311-316.
Ninan, K. N. and J. Sathyapalan (2005), 'The economics of biodiversity conservation: a study of a coffee growing region in the Western Ghats of India', Ecological Economics 55(1): 61-72.
Nishizawa, E., T. Kurokawa and M. Yabe (2007), 'Policies and resident’s willingness to pay for restoring the ecosystem damaged by alien fish in Lake Biwa, Japan', Environmental Science & Policy 9: 448-456.
Othman, J., J. Bennet and R. Blamey (2004), 'Environmental values and resource management options: a choice modelling experience in Malaysia', Environment and Development Economics 9: 803–824.
Pattanayak, S. K. (2001). How Green Are These Valleys? Combining Revealed and Stated Preference Methods to Account for Ecosystem Costs of Deforestation, Environment and Natural Resource Economics Program, Research Triangle Institute
Pattanayak, S. K. and R. A. Kramer (2001), 'Pricing ecological services: Willingness to pay for draught mitigation from watershed protection in eastern Indonesia', Water Resour. Res. 37(3): 771-778.
Pattanayak, S. K. and D. E. Mercer (1998), 'Valuing soil conservation benefits of agroforestry: contour hedgerows in the Eastern Visayas, Philippines', Agricultural Economics 18(1): 31-46.
Pearce, D. (2005). Economists and biodiversity conservation: What can we contribute? Bremen
Pham, K. N. and V. H. S. Tran (2000). Recreation Value of the Coral-surrounded Hon Mun Islands in Vietnam. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, IDRC,
Phuong, D. M. and C. Gopalakrishnan (2004), 'Optimal Management of Water for Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture ', International Journal of Water Resources Development 20(4): 493-506.
Rosenberger, R. and R. J. Johnston (2007). Selection effects in meta-valuation function transfers. Sønderborg, Denmark
Rosenberger, R. and J. Loomis (2000b), 'Panel stratification in meta-analysis of economic studies: an investigation of its effects in the recreation valuation literature', Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 32(1): 131-149.
Rosenberger, R. and T. D. Stanley (2007). Is the literature biased? Publication selection effects in recreation valuation. Portland, Oregon
Rosenberger, R. S. and J. B. Loomis (2000a), 'Using meta-analysis for benefit transfer: In-sample convergent validity tests of an outdoor recreation database', Water Resources Research 36(4): 1097-1107.
Santos, J. M. L. (1998), The Economic Valuation of Landscape Change. Theory and Policies for Land Use and Conservation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Seenprachawong, U. (2001). An Economic Analysis of Coral Reefs in the Andaman Sea of Thailand. EEPSEA research report,
Seenprachawong, U. (2002). An Economic Valuation of Coastal Ecosystems in Phang Nga Bay, Thailand. EEPSEA Research Report No. 2002-RR5, IDRC,
Shechter, M., B. Reiser and N. Zaitsev (1998), 'Measuring Passive Use Value: Pledges, Donations and CV Responses in Connection with an Important Natural Resource', Environmental and Resource Economics 12: 457-478.
Shrestha, R. K. and J. B. Loomis (2003), 'Meta-Analytic Benefit Transfer of Outdoor Recreation Economic Values: Testing Out-of-Sample Convergent Validity', Environmental & Resource economics 25: 79-100.
Smith, V. K. and S. K. Pattanayak (2002), 'Is Meta-Analysis a Noah’s Ark for Non-Market Valuation?' Environmental and Resource Economics 22: 271-296.
Stanley, T. D. and S. D. Jarrel (2005), 'Meta-Regression Analysis: A Quantitative Method of Literature Surveys', Journal of Economic Surveys 19(3): 299-308.
Strand, J. (2007), 'Public-good valuation and intrafamily allocation', Environmental and Resource Economics 38(4): 527-543.
Streever, W., J. M. Callaghan-Perry, A. Searles, T. Stevens and P. Svoboda (1998), 'Public attitudes and values for wetland conservation in New South Wales, Australia', Journal of Environmental Management 54: 1-14.
Subade, R. F. (2005). Valuing Biodiversity Conservation in a World Heritage Site: Citizens' Non-Use Values for Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park, Philippines Economy an Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA), IDRC,
Tapvong, C. and J. Kruavan (1999). Water Quality Improvements: A Contingent Valuation Study of the Chao Phraya River. EEPSEA, IDRC,
Thuy, T. D. (2006). Willingness to Pay for Conservation of Vietnamese Rhinoceros. Cebu, the Philippines
Tisdell, C., C. Wilson and H. S. Nantha (2005), 'Policies for Saving a Rare Australian Glider: Economics and Ecology', Biological Conservation 123: 237-248.
Tsuge, T. and T. Washida (2003), 'Economic valuation of the Seto Inland Sea by using an Internet CV survey', Marine Pollution Bulletin 47: 230-236.
Tuan, T. H., T. D. Thuy, J. Jianjun, A. Indab and O. Nabangchang (2008). WTP for Marine Turtle Conservation in Four Countries: Benefit Transfer Testing.
Van Houtven, G., J. Powers and S. K. Pattanayak (2007), 'Valuing water quality improvements using meta-analysis: Is the glass half-full or half-empty for national policy analysis?' Resource and Energy Economics 29(3): 206-228.
Veisten K, Hoen H F, Navrud S and Strand J (2004) Scope insensitivity in contingent valuation of complex environmental amenities. Journal of Environmental Management 73(4): 317-331.
Walpole, M. J., H. J. Goodwin and K. G. R. Ward (2001), 'Pricing policy for tourism in protected areas: Lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia', Conserv. Biol. 15(1): 218-227.
Wang, X., J. Bennett, C. Xie, Z. Zhang and D. Liang (2007), 'Estimating non-market environmental benefits of the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program: A choice modeling approach', Ecological Economics 63(1): 114-125.
Wei-Shiuen, N. and M. Robert (2005), 'The impact of sea level rise on Singapore', Environment and Development Economics 1002: 201-215.
Xu, Z. M., G. D. Cheng, J. Bennet, Z. Q. Zhang, A. H. Long and H. Kunio (2007), 'Choice modeling and its application to managing the Ejina Region, China', Journal of Arid Environments 69: 331-343.
Yaping, D. (1998). The Value of Improved Water Quality for Recreation in East Lake, Wuhan, China: Application of Contingent Valuation and Travel Cost Methods, . Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, IDRC.
Yeo, B. H. (2002), 'Valuing a Marine Park in Malaysia', in D. Pearce, C. Pearce and C. Palmer, eds, Valuing the Environment in Developing Countries: Case Studies. Edward Elgar.
Zhongmin, X., C. Guodong, Z. Zhiqiang, S. Zhiyong and J. Loomis (2003), 'Applying Contingent Valuation in China to Measure the Total Economic Value of Restoring Ecosystem Services in Ejina Region', Ecological Economics 44: 345-358.
Zhongmin, X., J. Loomis, Z. Zhiqiang and K. Hamamura (2006), 'Evaluating the performance of different willingness to pay question formats for valuing environmental restoration in rural China', Environment and Development Economics 11: 585-601.