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Το βιομηχανικό τοπίο ως πολιτιστικό αγαθό: Ιστορικές (α)συνέχειες και σύγχρονες διεπιστημονικές προσεγγίσεις

Zacharopoulou, Georgia (2015): Το βιομηχανικό τοπίο ως πολιτιστικό αγαθό: Ιστορικές (α)συνέχειες και σύγχρονες διεπιστημονικές προσεγγίσεις. Published in: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of the Hellenic Geographical Society, 22-23 October 2014, Thessaloniki, Greece (December 2015): pp. 740-755.

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For the purposes of the European Landscape Convention– N. 3827/10, FEK 30/A/25.02.10, "Ratification of the European Landscape Convention" (ELC, Florence 20.10.00) – “Landscape” means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors (Article 1, §a). Landscape has an important public interest role in the cultural, ecological, environmental and social fields, and is an important part of the quality of life for people every-where too (preamble). The objectives of the Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organize European cooperation on landscape issues (Article 3). The general (Article 4) and specific measures (awareness-raising, training and education, identification and assessment, landscape quality objectives, implementation) (Article 5), correspond directly to the critical approach methodology adopted by the scientific world of industrial heritage. This approach is developed mainly during the last three decades and has been incorporated in international resolutions, declarations and charters, such as the Declaration of Amsterdam (Congress on the European Architectural Heritage, 21-25 October 1975), The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance - (The Burra Charter) (Australia ICOMOS) - 1981 rev.1998/99), Joint ICOMOS – TICCIH Principles for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage Sites, Structures, Areas and Landscapes (2003/11) or The Paris Declaration οn heritage as a driver of development (2011). In a European level, each country develops its own institutional tools for landscape design harmonizing, thus, the European Landscape Convention in the national level. In parallel, European networks are emerging, such as the “UNISCAPE - European Network of Universities for the Implementation of the European Landscape Convention”, in collaboration with “ENELC - European Network of Local and Regional authorities for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention” and “CIVILSCAPE - European NGOs association in support of the European Landscape Convention”. Industrial heritage actually tells the story of the capitalism, but also extends to the historical timeline, highlighting the dynamic social relationship between the workers and the owners of the production means. In times of economic crisis, it may even involve a painful past with lost social, civil, gender and/or class struggles, a depressing present with abandoned, fragmented, degraded landscapes and ravaged factories and a hopeless future for the former workers of the local (or not) society. This is certainly an emotionally charged subject matter, with multiple readings and interpretations. Will economic crisis challenge for appropriate stakeholders for insightful, comprehensive and sustainable approaches, reclaiming alternative tools and strengthening informal networks? Reviewing Greek institutional framework -first reference on "Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty" (L.1469/1950 "On Protection of special category of buildings and works of art after 1830"), then the revision of the Greek Constitution in 1975/2001 (Article 24), the N.2742/1999 for "Land Use Planning and Sustainable Development" or the L.2831/2000 "Building Code"- the concept of protection is gradually embracing both natural and anthropogenic landscape. Finally, L.3028/2002 "For the Protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage" (the so-called archaeological law) defines cultural values as the "evidence of the existence of individual and collective human activity" (Definition of terms, Article 2), and therefore includes the values of an industrial landscape. It also clarifies that "the protection of the monuments, archaeological and historical sites should be included in the objectives of spatial, environmental and urban planning projects or any equivalent or/and substitutes of them" (Content of Protection, Article 3, §2). During the second half of the 20th century, unsustainable practices of over-exploitation or abandonment of (historic pre - , early) industrial production activities have prevailed in Greece. Such practices gradually contributed to the degradation of spatial and social structures and relationships, to the discontinuity of historical links and to a failure of the historical reading of the landscape. The ratification of the European Landscape Convention is a potentially modern institutional tool towards the protection of an industrial heritage landscape. In Greece, a synthesis of the typical types of Greek landscape identifying the local character-defining parameters based on geospatial data is a prerequisite. This kind of design has incorporated into the landscape to regional scale studies "Evaluation - Review & Expertise institutionalized RSPFSD (Regional Spatial Planning Frameworks for Sustainable Development)". The industrial landscape has not been included so far in these studies, as a particular type of landscape. However, it can be specialized in regulatory conditions in underlying design levels. Two areas of Thessaloniki are approached, as protected industrial landscapes incorporating mild and harmonized activities, having in mind that a) the landscape is subjected to partial ineffective protection policies, b) design without vision is a bureaucratic process, but just having vision does not correspond necessarily to a design process, and c) planning without goals and without future orientation is meaningless. Is it realistic to give a landscape zone of a quarry or a shipyard back to the community, as an attractive public space? The discussion in this paper is placed within the above context. The paper also summarizes principles and recommendations to authorities for a realistic and viable vision, namely, respect the authenticity of landscape/conserve natural terrain, creativity/innovation in the design, minimalism in implementation, interpretation of the landscape rather than its re-conception, safety signs ensuring safe access.

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