Arigoni Ortiz, Ramon and Bastianin, Andrea and Bigano, Andrea and Cattaneo, Cristina and Lanza, Alessandro and Manera, Matteo and Markandya, Anil and Plotegher, Michele and Sferra, Fabio (2009): Energy efficiency in Europe: trends, convergence and policy effectiveness.
Download (609kB) | Preview
This paper analyses energy efficiency in the EU, both in terms of reductions in energy intensity and in terms of physical indicators, looking at the differences among sectors and among Member States. We test econometrically the existence of convergence in energy intensity across Europe. We find a sensible catching–up of less performing countries, particularly in the agricultural and in the industrial sectors. Against this background, we analyse the role played by energy policies in EU Member States and we identify the most effective classes of policies and measures by means of a panel analysis of the EU-15 and Norway. It turns out that, in the residential sector, energy efficiency is particularly affected by heating regulations, by subsidies as well as tax reductions; in the transport sector, effective policies are tax reductions, incentives to eliminate old and polluting cars, car sharing, commuter plan and traffic management; in the industrial sector, mandatory technology standards, financing at low interest rate, information activities, education and outreach proved to be effective.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Energy efficiency in Europe: trends, convergence and policy effectiveness|
|Keywords:||energy intensity, energy efficiency, convergence, European energy policy|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q4 - Energy > Q48 - Government Policy
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O13 - Agriculture ; Natural Resources ; Energy ; Environment ; Other Primary Products
E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E6 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook > E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q0 - General > Q01 - Sustainable Development
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q4 - Energy > Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy
|Depositing User:||andrea bastianin|
|Date Deposited:||17. Jun 2009 00:41|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 17:18|
Bastianin A., Cattaneo C. Markandya, A. Are China and Europe converging? (2008) Mimeo, FEEM (submitted to China Energy)
Barro, R. J. and Sala-i-Martin X. (1992) “Convergence”, Journal of Political Economy, 100, 223-251.
Carree M. and Klomp L., (1997) “Testing the convergence hypothesis: a comment”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 79, 683-686.
Cass D., (1965) “Optimal growth in an aggregative model of capital accumulation”, Review of Economic Studies, 32, 233-240.
CONFINDUSTRIA (2008) ” Efficienza energetica in Italia. Tendenze e prospettive”, Mimeo
European Commission (2006) “Green Paper “Energy”, COM(2006) 105 final. Brussels, Belgium
Geller H., P. Harrington, A.Rosenfeld, S. Tanishima and F. Unander (2006) “Policies for Increasing energy Efficiency: thirty years of experience in OECD countries” Energy Policy, 34, p.556-573
Greening, L.A. and Green, D.L., (1998). Energy use, technical efficiency, and rebound effect: review of the literature. Conference Proceedings, Vol I. In: , 21st Annual International Conference of IAEE, Quebec, Canada, pp. 321–330.
Islam, N. (2003). What have we learnt from the convergence debate? Journal of Economic Surveys 17, 302-362.
Koopmans T.C.(1965) “On the Concept of Optimal Economic Growth”, in The Econometric Approach to Development Planning. Amsterdam: North- Holland.
Litchenberg F. R.,(1994) “Testing the convergence hypothesis”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 76, 576-579
Mankiw N.G., Romer D. and Weil D.N.,(1992) “A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107, 407-437
Markandya, A., Pedroso-Galinato, S. and Streimikiene, D., (2006). Energy intensity in transition economies: Is there convergence towards the EU average? Energy Economics 28, 121-145.
Ramsey F.P. (1928), “A mathematical theory of saving”, Economic Journal, 38, 543-559.
Schipper, L., Meyers, S., Howarth, R., (1993) Energy intensities in OECD countries: an historical analysis. International Journal of Global Energy Issues 5(2/3/4), 76}89.
Solow R. M. (1956) "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth", Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70, 65-94.
Tipping, P., Antonelli R., Boonekamp, P., Donkelaar Kroon M., Longstaff T. McLeod K., Srinivasan G., Tigchelaar C. (2006) “Impact Assessment on the Future Action Plan for Energy Efficiency” (CLWP: 2006/TREN/032), ECN, The Netherlands (http://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2006/e06041.pdf)
World Energy Council (2008) Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation (2008), World Energy Council, London, United Kingdom