Chandra, Vandana and Li, Ying and Osorio Rodarte, Israel (2007): Commodity Export Diversification in Rwanda - Many Export Discoveries with Little Scaling-Up. Published in: Rwanda: Toward Sustained Growth and Competitiveness , Vol. 2, No. 37860 (12. October 2007): pp. 160-190.
Download (3MB) | Preview
Increased diversification of commodity exports, and increased numbers of high-value commodity exports, are needed to generate employment and meet the Government of Rwanda´s targets for poverty reduction. This chapter presents evidence that increased diversification of exports is linked to increased export and GDP growth. Yet, commodity exports in Rwanda are concentrated in a few commodities. The relationship between export diversification and export growth in SSA confirms that for stable, sustainable, and higher export growth, export diversification is necessary. In addition to export promotion policies such as those which attract FDI, decision makers need to design policies to accelerate diversification of the export mix. The effect of diversification on export growth will be maximized if diversification shifts the export mix in the direction of manufactured or resource-based products (low or medium technology). This implies both sector specific public strategies that can influence the export mix; and second, public investments in human capital and supporting infrastructure.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Commodity Export Diversification in Rwanda - Many Export Discoveries with Little Scaling-Up|
|Keywords:||Rwanda; economic growth; export diversification; structural transformation|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O3 - Innovation ; Research and Development ; Technological Change ; Intellectual Property Rights > O38 - Government Policy
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O55 - Africa
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O2 - Development Planning and Policy > O25 - Industrial Policy
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General
|Depositing User:||Israel Osorio Rodarte|
|Date Deposited:||12. Nov 2009 16:37|
|Last Modified:||13. Mar 2015 14:19|
Aersten, George, Augustin Mutijima, Sylvain Mbarubugeye, March 2006. Rwanda Agricultural Policy Note, Background study # 1 : Prospects for achieving sustainable agricultural growth in Rwanda, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Republic of Rwanda.
Afiica Mining Intelligence. 2004, As quoted in Thomas R. Yager “The Mineral Industry of Rwanda” in U.S. Geological Surveys Minerals Yearbook - 2004, pp33.1.
Akitoby, Bernardin & Matthias Cinyabuguma. 2004. Sources of Growth in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Co-integration Approach. International Monetary Fund, WP/O4/114.
ATDT Banana Project - Rwanda” www.isar.ceiar.ordatdtiBanana/banana.htm.
Aureille, Yves G. & Serge Rwamasirabo. Spring 2006. Patterns of Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage in Rwanda Agriculture.
Chandra, V. (ed.). 2006, Technology, Adaptation and Exports - how some developing countries got it right, The World Bank.
Coulibab, Kalarnogo and Tembo R. B. Maburuki. 2006, Cross-border trade in Rwanda (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Dabalen, Andrew, Stefan, Paternostro and Gaelle Pierre. December 2004, The Returns to Participation in the Non-Farm Sector in Rural Rwanda, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3462.
Diao, Xinshen and Yu Bingxin, May 2006. Agricultural Growth and Poverty Reduction Options in Rwanda - Background Study #4 for Rwanda Agricultural Policy Note, International Food Policy Research Institute.
Diao, Xinshen and Yu Bingxin. August 2005, Growth and Poverty Reduction Options in Rwanda: An Economy wide, Multi-Market Model Analysis for 2004-20 15, Second Draft, Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute.
Diamond, Jack and Poka Khemani, 2005. ‘Introducing Financial Management Information Systems in Developing Countries’. IMF Working Paper. International Monetary Fund, October.
Diop, Ndiame, Paul Brenton and Yakup Asarkaya. 2005, Trade Costs, Export Development and Poverty in Rwanda World Bank Policy Working Paper 3784. The World Bank.
Economist Intelligent Unit. 2006, Country Report, Rwanda, 2006.
Elbadawi, Ibrahim. 2002. “Real Exchange Rate Policy and Non-traditional Exports in Developing Countries,” in G.K. Helleiner (ed.), Non-Traditional Export Promotion in Africa: Experiences and Issues, Palgrave: New York.
Elbadawi, Ibrahim, L. Kaltani and R. Soto. 2006, “Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in SSA: How Serious, How Dangerous,’’ Unpublished World Bank Memo (forthcoming).
Electrogaz. 2004: Annual Report.
Ezemenari, Kene and Kalamogo Coulibaly. 2006A, Total factor productivity growth and economic reforms: Evidence from Rwanda (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum), World Bank.
Ezemenari, Kene and Kalamogo Coulibaly. 2006B, Sources of growth in Rwanda: Four different complementary approaches (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum), World Bank.
Ezemenari, Kene and Ephraim Kebede. 2006, Rwanda’s growth Path and Binding Constraints (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Ezemenari, Kene, Kebede Ephraim and Rutayisire Musoni. 2006, Sources of Inflation in Rwanda, (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum) Unpublished, World Bank.
Ezemenari, Kene, Kebede Ephraim. 2006, The Impact of Aid on Fiscal Policy in Rwanda Implications for Growth and Poverty Reduction. (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Ezemenari, Kene and Rui Wu. January 2005, Earnings Differences Between Men and Women in Rwanda, Africa Region Working Paper Series Number 81,32053, The World Bank.
FAO. 2006, “Consultation on Hides and Skins”, Arusha, Tanzania, February 1, 2006.
FIAS. 2006a. Government of Rwanda - Sources of Informal Economic Activity. International Finance Company. November.
FIAS. 2006. Sector Study of the Effective Tax Burden, Rwanda. Foreign Investment Advisory Service. A joint service of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank. January.
Goessens and Rwamasirabo 2006. (incomplete). Agriculture Policy Note Background Paper. Ghura, Dhaneshwar and Benoit Mercereau. 2004. Political Instability and Growth: The Central African Republic, International Monetary Fund, WP/04/80
Government of Rwanda. 2006a. The National Accounts for Rwanda-Sources and Methods for GDP Estimates (base year 2001), National Institute of Statistics. December.
Government of Rwanda. 2006b. Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey. National Institute of Statistics, July.
Government of Rwanda. 2005. Rwanda’s Coffee Industry-Current Situations and Proposal for Action, Report of the Coffee Task Force, December.
Government of Rwanda. 2001. Rwanda Household Living Condition Survey (EICV).
Government of Rwanda. 2002. Population Census.
Haussman, Rodrick and Roberto Rigobon. 2002. An alternative interpretation of the ‘Resources Curse’: Theory and policy implications, NBER Working Paper 9424
Haussman, Ricardo, Dani, Rodrik, and Andres Velasco, 2005, ”Growth Diagnostics,” John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Imani Development Group. 2006. Support to Rwanda’s Accession to the East African Community: Volume 1, Economic Impact Report. May.
Imbs and Wacziarg. 2003 (Incomplete).
International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2006. http://www.friendscentre.net/home.html. International Financial Statistics database.
IMF, 2005. “The Macroeconomics of Managing Increased Aid Inflows: Experiences of Low-Income Countries and Policy Implications” Available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2005/080805a.pdf. IMF, Staff reports, various years International Telecommunication Union.
Joseph, K.J. 2002. ‘Growth of ICT and ICT for Development, Realities of the Myths of the Indian Experience’. Discussion Paper No. 2002178. World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER). United Nations University. August.
J. E. Austin Associates, Inc. 2006, Rwanda: Export Competitiveness Desk Study (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Kanimba, Francois, Deepening the financial market in Rwanda. Power point presentation, September 2004.
Kassahun, Rahel. 2006, Development of Tourism in Rwanda: Unleashing the Sector’s Potential to Drive Export Growth (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Kawai, Masahiro and Shinji Takagi, 2001. “Proposed strategy for a regional exchange rate arrangement in post-crisis East Asia,” manuscript, World Bank.
Kelly and Murekezi. 2000 (Incomplete.)
Klinger, B. and D. Ledermen. 2006. Diversification in the Search for Innovation and Export Booms. Draft Working Paper, World Bank.
Lall, S. 2001, ”Technology, Competitiveness and Skills,” Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.
Loveridge, S. 1989. (incomplete).
Lull, S. 200 1. “Technology, Competitiveness and Skills,” Cheltenham, Edward Edgar.
Lasbille, Gerard and Jee-Pan Tan. 2004, The returns to Education in Rwanda, Journal of African Linjouom, Mireille. 2006. The impact of the higher oil prices on Rwanda economic (Background Economies, Vo1.14, 92-1 16. paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Madon S. and G. Kiran. 2002. Information Technology for Citizen-Government Interface: A study of FRIENDS project in Kerala. World Bank Global Knowledge Sharing Program (GKSP).
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, National Accounts, Direction of Statistics, Republic Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Government Operations 1995-2005, Republic of of Rwanda.
National Bank of Rwanda (BNR), Republic of Rwanda OCIR CafB. 2005, Republic of Rwanda.
Nugawela, P, V. Bicali, and V. Ndagijimana. 2004 “Review and Assessment of Micro- and Small-scale Enterprises in Rwanda, Background paper for the Country Economic Memorandum
Nkama, Arsene Honore Gideon. April 2005, Sources of Growth and competitiveness in Rwanda
Obidegwu, Chukwuma. 2003, “Rwanda: The Search for Post-Conflict Socio-Economic Change, OCIR Tea. 2005, Republic of Rwanda.
OECD. 2003a. ‘ICT and Economic Growth: Evidence from OECD Countries, Industries and l’energie sur la croissance Bconomique au Rwanda, Republique du Rwanda. (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum), World Bank.
Peters, Marjolein and Huib Poot. November 2005, The role of employment in Rwanda’s Poverty reduction strategy. Labour market, employment considerations, employment policy, ECORYS-NEI, Labour & Social Policy (Background paper for the Rwanda Country Economic Memorandum).
Rutayisire, J. Musoni. Monetary Policy and demand for money in Rwanda: application of cointegration techniques and the error-correction model (1980-2000), May 2004.
S. Eken, Abdourahmane Sarr, Jacques Bouhga-Hagbe and Jerome Vandenbussche, 2005.
International Monetary Fund, Morocco Selected Issues, Country Report No. 05/419.
Scetauroute. 2002. Report on Roads. Prepared for the European Union. Paris.
Sekkat, Khalid and Aristomene Varoudakis. 1998. Exchange-rate management and manufactured exports in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper No. 134, OECD Development Centre.
US. Census Bureau, Global Population Profile. 2002.
USAID. 2006, USAIDlRwanda Integrated Strategic Plan 2004-2009, Volume 1, January.
Tahari, Amor; Dhaneshwar Ghura; Bernardin Akitoby and Emmanuel Brou Aka. 2004 Sources of Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund WP/04/176.
World Bank. 2005. Rwanda Diagnostic Trade Integration Study, November
WTO: Trade Policy Review Rwanda. Report by the Secretariat WT/TPR/S/129 13 April 2004.
Yongling, Zhong.2004. ‘Information Services in Rural China - Field Surveys and Findings’. Information Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, People’s Republic of China. RAP Publication 2004/03.
The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Achieving Success through the African Global Competitive Initiative”, June 2006, www.apoa.pov.