Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Profts and principles: Four perspectives

Graafland, J.J. (2001): Profts and principles: Four perspectives. Published in: Journal of Business Ethics , Vol. 35, (2002): pp. 293-305.


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This article clarifies the relationship between profits and principles by distinguishing four alternative perspectives: the win-win perspective in which ethical behaviour generates the highest profits; a licence-to-operate perspective in which a minimum ethical performance is required to receive legitimation from the society; an acceptable profits perspective, in which an acceptable profitability is required to assure the financial continuity; and an integrated perspective. These four perspectives are illustrated by statements from Shell reports and from interviews with managers of a large European retail company.

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