Wanner, R.A and Dronkers, J. (2005): The Effects of Immigration Policies and Labor Market Structures on the Income of Immigrants to the More Developed Countries of Europe and North America.
Download (233kB) | Preview
The average household income of first generation immigrants in Europe and North-America is lower than that of natives, and this difference can not be explained by their amount of human capital (education, age, gender, residence). This is above all true for immigrants, coming from the second- or third world, who have also a lower return of their education. These arrears in income of immigrants vary between countries of destination, also after control for the individual characteristics of immigrants and natives. Only one characteristic of immigration policy has a significant effect on the variance of income arrears of immigrants across the countries of destination: the inflow ratio of asylum seekers. The higher this inflow ratio of asylum seekers in a country of destination, the larger the income differences between comparable immigrants and natives in that country of destination. Also only one characteristic of the labour market for foreigners has a significant effect on income arrears of immigrants in various countries of destination and from different countries of origin. A larger labour market participation by foreigners increases their income arrear with comparable natives, but this larger labour market participation by decreases that income arrear of the higher educated immigrant and does that extra for the higher educated immigrant from the second and third world.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Effects of Immigration Policies and Labor Market Structures on the Income of Immigrants to the More Developed Countries of Europe and North America|
|Keywords:||income; immigrants; cross-national analysis; labour market policies;|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General > J08 - Labor Economics Policies
D - Microeconomics > D3 - Distribution > D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants ; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Jaap Dronkers|
|Date Deposited:||17. Apr 2010 00:04|
|Last Modified:||17. Feb 2013 21:13|
Alba, R.D. and Nee, V. (2003) Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Borjas, G. J. (1988). International Differences in the Labor Market Performance of Immigrants. Kalamazoo: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Calavita, K. (1994). “US Immigration Policy: Contradictions and Projections for the Future.” Global Legal Studies Journal 2: 143-152.
Castles, S. & Miller, M. J. (1998). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. London: Macmillan.
Charlier H. and A. Franco (2001) “The EU Labour Force Survey on the Way to Convergence and Quality.” Proceedings of Statistics Canada Symposium, Achieving Data Quality in a Statistical Agency: A Methodological Perspective.
Cheng, Y. (1994). Education and Class: Chinese in Britain and the United States. Aldershot: Avebury.
Cornelius, W.A., P. L. Martin, and J. F. Hollifield. (1994) Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Cornelius, W.A., Tsuda, T., P. L. Martin, and J. F. Hollifield. (2004) Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (Second Edition). Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Duleep, H. O. & Regets, M.C. (1992). Some Evidence on the Effects of Admissions Criteria on Immigrant Assimilation. In B. R. Chiswick (ed.), Immigration, Language and Ethnic Issues: Canada and the United States (pp. 410-439) Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Enoch Y. (1994) “The Intolerance of a Tolerant People: Ethnic-Relations in Denmark.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 17: 282-300.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
European Social Survey (2002). www.europeansocialsurvey.org Eurostat, 2001. Migration Statistics. http://epp.eurostat.cec.eu.int/portal/
Eurostat (2002) European Union Labor Force Survey
Ganzeboom, H. B. G., Graaf, P. M. de & Treiman, D. J. (1992). A Standard International Socioeconomic Index of Occupational Status. Social Science Research, 21, 1-56.
Heath, A. & Cheung, S.Y. (eds.) (2006), Ethnic Minority Disadvantage: Comparative Perspective’. Oxford: OUP (in press)
Hox, J. (2002). Multivariate Analysis. Techniques and Applications. Mahwah (NJ)/ London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kogan, I. (2003). Ex-Yugoslavs in the Austrian and Swedish labour markets: the significance of the period of migration and the effect of citizenship acquisition. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 29: 595-622.
Kogan, I. (2004). Labour market integration of immigrants in the European Union: The role of host countries' institutional contexts. Ph.D. thesis University of Mannheim.
Kurthen H. 1995. “Germany at the Crossroads: National Identity and the Challenges of Immigration.” International Migration Review 29: 914-938.
Levels, M. and J. Dronkers, 2005. “Differences in Scholastic Knowledge of First and Second Generation Migrants Coming From Various Regions in Highly Developed Countries of Europe and the Pacific Rim.” Paper presented at a conference in honour of Prof. J. Peschar, Groningen, September 2005.
Lewin-Epstein, N., Semyonov, M., Kogan, I. & Wanner, R. (2003). Institutional Structure and Immigrant Integration: A Comparative Study of Immigrants' Labor Market Attainment in Canada and Israel. International Migration Review, 37, 389-420.
Li, P.S. (2003) Destination Canada: Immigration Debates and Issues. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Lynch, J.P. and R.J. Simon (2003) Immigration the World Over. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Massey, D. et al. (1998). Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press.
McVey, W. W. and Kalbach, W. E. (1995). Canadian Population. Toronto: Nelson Canada.
Model, S., Fisher, G. & Silberman, R. (1999). Black Carribeans in comparative perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 187-212.
Migration Policy Group. (2004) Country Reports. (http://www.migpolgroup.com/)
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (1999a). Classifying Educational Programmes. Manual for ISCED97 implementation for OECD countries. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(1999b). Social Expenditure Database 1980-1996. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(2000). Trends in International Migration 2000. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(2001). Trends in International Migration 2001. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(2002). Trends in International Migration 2002. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(2003) The Economic and Social Aspects of Migration. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Portes, A. (1999). Conclusion: Towards a New World: The Origins and Effects of Transnational Activities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22, 463-477.
Portes, A. & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rasbash, J., Browne, W., Goldstein, H., Yang, M., Plewis, I., Healy, M., Woodhouse, G., Draper, D., Langford, I. & Lewis, T. (2000). A user's guide to MLwiN 1.1. London: Institute of Education, University of London.
Reitz, J. G. (1998). Warmth of the Welcome: The Social Causes of Economic Success for Immigrants in Different Nations and Cities. Boulder: Westview Press.
Reitz, J. G. (2002). Host Societies and the Reception of Immigrants: Research Themes, Emerging Theories and Methodological Issues. International Migration Review, 36, 1005-1019.
Reitz, J. G., Frick, J. R., Calabrese, T. & Wagner, G. C. (1999). The institutional framework of ethnic employment disadvantage: a comparison of Germany and Canada. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 397-443.
Snijders, T. A. B. & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel Analysis. An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel Modeling. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage. Statistics Canada. Census 1996, Public Use Microdata File. http://www.statcan.ca/
Tubergen, F. van (2005). The Integration of Immigrants in Cross-National Perspective. Origin, Destination, and Community Effects. Ph.D. thesis University Utrecht.
Tubergen, F. van, Maas, I. & Flap, H. (2004). The Economic Incorporation of Immigrants in 18 Western Societies: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects. American Sociological Review, 69, 704-727.
UNICEF, 2004. The State of the World's Children. http://www.unicef.org/sowc99/
US Bureau of the Census. Labor Force Survey, March 2002. http://www.census.gov/
Wanner, R. A. (1998). Prejudice, Profit, or Productivity: Explaining Returns To Human Capital Among Male Immigrants To Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 30, 24-55.
Wanner, R. A. (2003). Entry Class and the Earnings Attainment of Immigrants to Canada, 1980-1995. Canadian Public Policy, 29, 53-71.
Winship, C. and L Radbill. (1994) “Sampling Weights and Regression Analysis.” Sociological Methods and Research 23: 230-257.
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2004) World Factbook. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/
Zimmermann, K.F. (2005). European Immigration: What Do We Know? Oxford: Oxford University Press.