Chauhan, Vinay and Khanna, Suvidha (2008): Tourism: A Tool for Crafting Peace Process in Kashmir, J&K, India. Published in: TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , Vol. 4, No. 2 (15. April 2009): pp. 69-89.
Download (178kB) | Preview
Among the positive benefits attri¬buted to the social and cultural aspects of tourism are the promotion of good¬will, understanding and peace among people across cultures. The role of tourism as an ambassador and vehicle of international understand¬ing and peace has even been acknowledged by the Un¬ited Nations. World Tourism Conference in 1960 in Manila has de¬clared that tourism as a vital force for world peace since it brings both “hosts” and “guests” together to learn about peace by understanding and appreciating diverse cultural issues. Kashmir despite of a major tourist destination, the spread of terrorism especially during the last two decades have hindered the smooth growth of tourism industry. Thus following the principle of tourism as a strategic tool to counter terrorism, the present research is conducted to study the tourism’s contribution to the peace building in Kashmir in terms of residents’ and tourists’ perception. The research concludes that tourism has a significant contribution towards peace building in the study area and the study also suggests a strategic model based on developing guest-host relationship.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Tourism: A Tool for Crafting Peace Process in Kashmir, J&K, India|
|Keywords:||tourism, terrorism, Kashmir, peace|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
M - Business Administration and Business Economics ; Marketing ; Accounting ; Personnel Economics > M1 - Business Administration
L - Industrial Organization > L8 - Industry Studies: Services > L83 - Sports ; Gambling ; Restaurants ; Recreation ; Tourism
|Depositing User:||Evangelos Christou|
|Date Deposited:||23. Sep 2010 13:31|
|Last Modified:||25. Feb 2015 16:26|
Blanchard, L.A. (2005). Peace Through Tourism- PACS 6910. Peace, Tourism and Conflict. January 11. Http:// www.arts.usyd.edu.au/centres/cpacs/docs/council/annual_report_2005.pdf. Accessed the 13th of April 2009.
Bloom, J. (1996). A South African Perspective of the Effects of Crime and Violence on the Tourism Industry. In A. Pizzam and Y. Mansfeld (Eds). Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, London: John Wiley and Sons.
Buckley, P.J. & Klemm, M. (1993). The Decline of Tourism in Northern Ireland: The Causes. Tourism Management, Vol. 14, No.3, pp.184-94.
Choudhary, Z. (2008). Violence goes Low from High Intensity. Early Times, Nov. 3, Jammu, J&K.
Chauhan, V. & Khanna, S. (2005). Terrorism and Tourism in J&K: An Empirical Study. Tourism Development Journal, Vol. 2, No.1, pp.102-110.
Chiang, L.C. (2000). Strategies for Safety and Security in Tourism: A Conceptual Framework for Singapore Hotel Industry. Journal of Tourism Studies, School of Cuisines Cook University, Vol. 11, No.2. Http://www.jeu.edu.au/fac1/public/business/jts/v11N2. Accessed the 9th of April 2009.
Cohen, E. (1987). The Tourist as Victim and Protégé of Law Enforcing Agencies. Leisure Studies, Vol. 6, No.2, pp.181-198.
Comito, F. (2002). Impact of Terrorism and Crime on Tourism in Far reaching. Bahamas Commentary. September 11, 2002, Http//www.bahamasb2b.com/news/wmview. Accessed the 9th April 2009.
Fodness, D. & Murray, B. (1997). Tourist Information Search. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 24, No.3, pp.503-523.
Frangialli. (2004). Tourism can Help Bring Peace in the Middle East, http://www.4hoteliers.com/4hots_nshw.php?mwi=1199. Accessed the 9th of April 2009.
Hall, C.M. & O’Sullivan, V. (1996). Tourism, Political Instability & Social Unrest. In A. Pizam and Y. Mansfield (Eds.). Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, London.: John Wiley & Sons.
Hall, M.C. (2002). Travel safety, Terrorism & the Media: The Significance of the Issue-attention Cycle. Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 5, No.5, pp.458-466.
IACVB. Http://www.allbusiness.com/transportation-communications/transportation-services/4158113-1.html. Accessed the 13th of April 2009.
IIPT. (2000). Http://www.uftaa.org/gen.php3?id_article=148. Accessed the 9th of April 2009.
Inter-American Travel Congress. (1997). Sustaining Tourism by Managing Safety and Security at the Destinations. Http://www.latinamericalinks.com/latin_america%20travel%20tourism.htm - 13k . Accessed the 9th of April 2009.
Katoch, H.C. (2006). Militancy and Economy in J&K. Daily Excelsior, Jan. 22, Jammu, J&K.
Kaur, Arvinder (2006). Indian Tourism: Reaching New Heights. Daily Excelsior, January 12, p.6, Jammu, J&K.
Kelly, I. (1998). Tourism and the Peace Proposition. In Proceedings, Fourth Asia Pacific Tourism Association Conference, Tanyang, Korea, August 18-21, pp.141-149.
Kelly, I. (2006). The Peace Proposition: Tourism as a Tool for Attitude change. IIPT Occasional. No.9. Http//www.iipt.org/educators/OccPap09.pdf. Accessed the 9th April 2009 at 15.16.
Lankford, S. (1996). Crime and Tourism : A Study of Perceptions in the Pacific Northwest. In A. Pizam and Y. Mansfield (Eds.) Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, London, John Wiley.
Lawrence, W. (1967). Valley of Kashmir. Srinagar, Kesar publishers, J&K.
Levantis, T. & Gani, A. (2000). Tourism demand and the nuisance of crime. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 27, No.7/8/9/10, pp.959-967
Mabudafhasi H.R. (2003). Western Cape Provincial safety and security. Http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/2003. Accessed the 15th of October 2003.
Michael Wong. (2007). Advancing the Contribution of Tourism to Poverty Reduction and Socio-Economic Development: The Role of the World Bank. Http://www.tourism&poverty.pdf. Accessed the 20th of March 2006.
Minho, Ch. (2007). A Re-examination of Tourism and Peace: The Case of the Mt. Gumgang Tourism Development on the Korean Peninsula. Tourism Management, Vol. 28, Issue 2, April, pp.556-569.
Morrison, A. (2006). Building a Culture of Peace Through Tourism. Http:// www.north-by-north-east.com/articles/09-06-1.adp. Accessed the 10th of April 2009.
Pearce, P.L. (1998). The Ulysses Factor: Evaluating Visitors in Tourist Settings. New York, Springer.
Pinhey, T.K., & Iverson, T.J. (1994). Safety Concerns of Japanese Visitors to Guam. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 3, No.2, pp.87-94.
Pizam, A. & Mansfield, Y. (1996). Tourism, rime and International Security Issues. London, John Wiley.
Sashana, A. (2006). Tourism and Peace: The traveler. IIPT Occasional Paper No.4, March. Http://www.iipt.org/educators/OccPap04.pdf. Accessed the 12th of April 2009.
Shafi, M. (1994). Tourism Dynamics in a Developing Economy. Srinagar-India, Gulshan Publisher.
Sonmez, S.F. (1998). Tourism, Terrorism and Political Instability. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 25, No.2, pp.416-456.
Sonmez, S.F. & Graefe, A.R. (1998). Influence of Terrorism, Risk on Foreign Tourism Decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 25, No.1, pp.112-144.
Tarlow, P. & Muehsam, M. (1996). Theoretical Aspects of Crime as They Impact the Tourism Industry. In A. Pizam and Y. Mansfield (Eds). Tourism, crime and international security issues, London: John Wiley.
Tomljenovic, R. & Faulkner, B. (2000). Tourism and World Peace: A Conundrum for the Twenty-first Century. In B. Faulkner, G. Moscardo and E. Laws (Eds). Tourism in the Twenty-first Century, London: Continum.
Vajpayee, A.B. Tapping Huge Tourism Potential of the country. Http://meaindia.nic.in/speech/2002/04/08spc01.htm. Accessed the 10th of April 2009.
Villers, D. (2003). Tourism and Peace in Africa. World Tourism Organization, 29-30 May.
Verma, V. (2008). Terrorism Through Prism of Non-violence. Daily Excelsior, October 31.
Wahab, S. (1996). Tourism & Terrorism: Synthesis of the Problem with Emphasis on Egypt. In A. Pizam and Y. Mansfield (Eds). Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, London: John Wiley.
Wall, G. (1996). Terrorism and Tourism: An Overview and an Irish Example. In A. Pizam and Y. Mansfield (Eds). Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, London: John Wiley.
White House Conference on Travel and Tourism. (1995). Proposed National Tourism Strategy. Washington, DC: US. Travel and Tourism Administration. Http://www.commerce.gov/opa/press/Secretary_Evans/2001_Releases/Oct_29_Evans_Tourism_Cabinet.html - 18k -. Accessed the 13th of April 2000.
World Tourism Organization (1991). Recommended Measures for Tourism Safety. Madrid. Http:// pub.world-tourism.org:81/WebRoot/Store/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1023/9284401526.pdf. Accessed the 11th of April 2009.
World Tourism Organization. (1995). Best Practice Manual on Traveler Safety and Security: Recommended Measures for Tourism Safety. Madrid: Author.
WTO. (2000). Tourism can help bring peace in the Middle East says WTO. Http:// www.unwto.org. Accessed the 10th of April 2009.