Ramsey, Elaine and Bond, Derek (2006): Evaluating Public Policy Formation and Support Mechanisms for Technological Innovation.
Download (215kB) | Preview
Policy evaluation is a complex task. Most approaches now adopt a mixed method approach combining both quantitative and qualitative techniques. A shortcoming of the standard approaches is that they fail to measure or investigate deeper perceptions of the policy. In this paper the usefulness of projective techniques as a tool for policy evaluation is investigated. Projective techniques are widely used in psychology and consumer studies but their usefulness in policy evaluation has still to be assessed. A simple evaluation is done in this paper by reporting on a study of owner-managers of tradeable-services small and medium size enterprises attitudes to Government e-business policy. The survey included firms from Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and New Zealand. Traditional quantitative and qualitative survey techniques were used, however these failed to produce conclusive evidence. To overcome this limitation two projective techniques- word association and completion tests were employed as an additional evaluation method. The paper illustrates how the results of projective techniques can be analysed using both context and matrix analysis. Given that the area of e-business is dynamic and fast changing and that SMEs are extremely heterogeneous, it is argued that the application of projective techniques to assess their attitudes and perceptions of government policy is a good test of the usefulness of the method. The results of the projective techniques lead to more insight into the perceptions and attitudes of the owner-managers and provide interesting individual perspectives into the issues. Problems with the method, such as costs, the level of skill needed to apply the technique and generalization are highlighted. The overall conclusions are that projective techniques could provide an interesting additional tool for policy evaluation and that further assessment of its usefulness is needed.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Evaluating Public Policy Formation and Support Mechanisms for Technological Innovation|
|Keywords:||Policy evaluation; Projective techniques: E-business; SMEs|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O3 - Innovation ; Research and Development ; Technological Change ; Intellectual Property Rights > O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O3 - Innovation ; Research and Development ; Technological Change ; Intellectual Property Rights > O38 - Government Policy
|Depositing User:||Derek Bond|
|Date Deposited:||09. Oct 2006|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 21:27|
Barker, A., et al, 2001, ‘Informed eclecticism: a research paradigm for the 21st Century’, International Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.43, No.1, pp3-27 Barney, J.B., 1991, ‘Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage’, Journal of Management, Vol.17, (March), pp. 99-120 Bayoumi, T.and Haacker, M., 2002, ‘It's Not What You Make, It's How You Use IT: Measuring the Welfare Benefits of the IT Revolution Across Countries,’ CEPR Discussion Papers 3555, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. Berkman, H.W.and Gilson, C. 1986, Consumer behaviour, concepts and strategies. 3rd ed. Boston. Kent. Bellak, L. 1992, Projective techniques in the computer age, Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol.58, pp.445-453. Burns, L.D. and Lennon, S.J., 1993. Social perception: methods for measuring our perception of others. International Textile and Apparel Association Special Publication, Vol. 5, pp. 153-159. Bennett, R., and Robson, P., 1998, ‘External advice and business links’, in A. Cosh and A. Hughes (Ed.) Enterprise Britain, Growth, Innovation and Public Policy in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprise Sector 1994-1997, ESRC Centre for Business Research, Cambridge. 1998 Bilderbeek, R., et al, 1998, ‘Services in innovation: knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) as co-producers of innovation’, S14S Synthesis Paper, [online] available at URL: http://les.man.ac.uk/PREST/Download/finalrp3.pdf accessed on 20th May, 2003 Blili, S., and Raymond, L., 1993, ‘Information Technology: threats and opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises’, Journal of Information Management, Vol.13, pp.439-448 Branthwaite, A., 2002, ‘Investigating the power of imagery in marketing communication: evidence-based techniques’, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 164-171 Brown, E., 2002, ‘Accelerating the uptake of e-commerce by small and medium enterprises’, [online] available at URL: http://www.setel.com.au/smeforum2002/final_report accessed on 3rd January 2003 Burns, L.D., and Lennon, S.J., 1993, ‘Social perception: methods for measuring our perception of others’, International Textile and Apparel Association Special Publication, Vol.5, pp. 153 –159 Bygrave, W. D., 1989, ‘The Entrepreneurship Paradigm (I): A Philosophical Look at its Research Methodologies’, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol.14, No.1, pp. 7-26. Churchill, G.A., 1991, Marketing research methodological foundations (5th Ed.) Chicago: Dryden Press Clarke, D., Bowden, S., and Corner, P., 2003, ‘E-business in New Zealand 2000-2002: are we ready for the digital economy?’ University of Auckland Business Review, Vol.5, No. 2, pp. 79-90. Creswell, J.W., 2003, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. (2nd Ed), Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Department of Trade and Industry, 2003, ‘Business in the Information Age: The International Benchmarking Study’, [online] available at URL: http://www.ukonlineforbusiness.gov.uk/bechmarking2003/index.htm accessed on 20th January 2004 Durkin, M., and McGowan. P., 2001, ‘Net effect –views from the periphery: exploring the role and importance of the Internet on marketing activity in entrepreneurial firms’, Irish Marketing Review, Vol. 14, pp.15-25 Edwards, W., 1954, ‘The theory of decision-making’, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 51, pp. 380-417 EU, 2005a, Impact Assessment of Regional & National E-Business Policies: Impact Assessment Report 1 European Commission, Enterprise Directorate General, e-Business, ICT Industries and Services EU, 2005b, Impact Assessment of Regional & National E-Business Policies: Final Impact Assessment Report European Commission, Enterprise Directorate General, e-Business, ICT Industries and Services Information Society Benchmarking Report, 2005, [online] available at URL: http://europa.eu.int/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/benchmarking/051222%20Final%20Benchmarking%20Report.pdf Fallon, M., and Moran, P., 2000, ‘Information communication technology (ICT) and manufacturing SMEs’, paper presented at The 2000 Small Business and Enterprise Conference. Manchester University, Manchester, pp.100-109 Fillis. I., et al, 2004, ‘Factors impacting on e-business adoption and development in the smaller firm’. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp178 -191. Go Digital, 2002, Progress Report, [online] available at URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/ict/policy/doc/sec_2002_566.pdf accessed on 17th May 2003 Gordon, W., and Langmaid, R., 1988, Qualitative market research. Gower: Aldershot Graham, J.R., and Lilly, R.S., 1984, Psychological testing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Gray, B., et al, 2003, ‘Overcoming barriers to better performance in Service Businesses’. Marketing Performance Centre: University of Otago. Hauknes, J., 1996, ‘Innovation in the service economy’, STEP Report available online at: URL: http://www.step.no/reports/y1996/0796.pdf accessed on 20th February 2006 Hoskin, F., 2002, ‘How do we ask questions and how do we know what it all means?’ [online] available at URL: http://www.nop.co.uk/news/PDE/BIG_Conference.PDF accessed on 9th September 2002 ISI, 1999, ISI Mission Statement, (Information Society Initiatives), [online] available at URL: http://www.ukonline.gov.org accessed on 14th June 2002 Jutla, D., et al, 2002, ‘Supporting the e-business readiness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics’. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, Vol.12, No.2, pp. 139-164. Kai-Uwe Brock, J., 2000, ‘Information and technology in the small firm’ in S.Carter and D. Jones-Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Business: Principles, Practice and Policy. Financial Times: Prentice-Hall. Kassarjian, H.H., 1974, ‘Projective methods’, in R. Ferber (Ed.), Handbook of Marketing Research. New York: McGraw-Hill Kracauer, S., 1953, ‘The challenge to qualitative content analysis’, Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.16, pp. 631 – 642 Loudon, D.L., and Della Bitta, A.J., 1993, ‘Consumer behaviour, concepts and application’, (4th Ed.) New York:McGraw-Hill Lowenthal, T, 1999, ‘The Future of Federal Statistics in the Information Age – Discussion’, Journal of Official Statistics, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 367-372. March, J., and Simon, H., 1958, Organisations, New York: John Wiley and Sons Martin, L.M., and Matlay, H., 2003, ‘Innovative use of the Internet in established small firms: the impact of knowledge management and organisational learning in accessing new opportunities’, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 18-26 Martin, L.M., and Matlay, H., 2001, ‘"Blanket" approaches to promoting ICT in small firms: some lessons from the DTI ladder adoption model in the UK’, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 399 – 410 McGuire, G., 2002, ‘Market access opportunities and benefits of liberalisation for developing economies’, [online] available at URL: http://188.8.131.52/tab/pubs/itcdtab20_en.pdf accessed on 25th September 2003 Miles, I., 2001, ‘Services innovation: a reconfiguration of innovation studies’, [online] available at URL http://les.man.ac.uk/PREST/Publications/DP_PDFs/PRESTDPO1-05.pdf accessed on 7th August 2002 Nahuis R. and P J.G. Tang, 2004, ‘Strategic Policy Competition with Public Infrastructure,’ Working Papers 04-24, Utrecht School of Economics. O'Toole, T., 2003, ‘E-relationships - emergence and the small firm’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol.21, No.2, pp.115-122 Raymond, L., 2001, ‘Determinants of web site implementation in small business, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, Vol. 11, No.5 Sampson, P., 1987, ‘Qualitative research in Europe: the state of the art and the art of the state’ in P. Sampson (Ed) Qualitative research: the old the new and a question mark, ESOMAR Marketing Research Monograph, Vol. 2 (Amsterdam) Schumpeter , J.A., 1942, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper and Row Solomon, M.R., 1994, Consumer behaviour: buying having and being, (2nd Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Srinivasan, R., et al, 2002 ‘Technological opportunism and radical technology adoption an application to e-business’, [online] available at URL: http://www.msce.external.Xerox.com/isbm/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-194/1-2002.pdf accessed on 8th August 2002 Storey, D.J., 1994, Understanding the small business sector, London: Routledge Storey D, 2002, ‘Methods of evaluating the impact of public policies to support small businesses: the six steps to heaven’, International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 1, pp.181 - 202 Swan, J., and Newell, S., 1994, ‘Managers’ beliefs about factors affecting the adoption of technological innovation: a study using cognitive maps’. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol.9, No.2, pp.3-11 Taylor M, and Murphy, A., 2004, ‘SMEs and E-business’, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 280-289. Wagner, E.E., 1995, ‘A logical analysis of projective techniques based on independence of items and latitude of response’, Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol. 81, pp. 868-870. Webb, J.R., 1992, Understanding and designing marketing research. London: Academic Press Wernerfelt, B., 1984, ‘A resource-based view of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 171-180 Wymbs, C., 2000, ‘How e-commerce is transforming and internationalising service industries’, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.14, No.6, pp.463-477 Zeithaml, V.A., and Bitner, J., 1996, Services Marketing, New York: McGraw-Hill Zheng, J., et al., 2004, ‘Small firms and e-business: cautiousness, contingency and cost-benefit’, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.10, pp.27-39