Aravindakshan, Sreejith and Sherief, Aliyaru Kunju (2010): The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy. Published in: Book title : Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture and Allied Sectors, Edited by: GSLHV Prasad Rao, Publisher: Scientific Publishers, New Delhi, India No. ISBN: 978-81-7233-679-0 (2011): pp. 193-200.
Download (5MB) | Preview
Conventional input intensive agriculture practised over the last century has been a major contributor to climate change, second only to energy sector. The communities engaged in pesticide and synthetic input rich agriculture is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Many emerging economies including India have had the opportunity to develop National Adaptation Plans of Action in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change but implementation of those programmes and strategic links to resourcing actions are often lacking. Adaptation in the agricultural sector can be seen in terms of both short-term and long-term actions. Changing to organic farming systems is the most efficient and long term adaptation strategy. Organic agriculture is believed to be the most sustainable approach against climate change ensuring food security; it employs low external input and high output strategies. This paper attempts to review the potent role of organic agriculture as an adaptation strategy to deliver a tangible and hopeful alternative towards sustainable livelihood in the backdrop of climate change. The methodology involves thorough review of scientific literature. The study discusses the carbon sequestration achieved as well as reduction in emission with respect to low pesticide use and fossil fuel based farm machinery use in organic farming. The analysis of results concludes that the organic system of farming is the most resilient adaptation strategy against climate change and offer greater potential as a sustainable livelihood mechanism in times of climate transition.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy|
|English Title:||The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy|
|Keywords:||adaptation; climate change; organic agriculture; sustainable livelihoods; vulnerability|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q16 - R&D ; Agricultural Technology ; Biofuels ; Agricultural Extension Services
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q19 - Other
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O13 - Agriculture ; Natural Resources ; Energy ; Environment ; Other Primary Products
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q54 - Climate ; Natural Disasters and Their Management ; Global Warming
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q10 - General
|Depositing User:||Sreejith Aravindakshan|
|Date Deposited:||04. Dec 2010 20:29|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 00:23|
Bescansa P., M.J. Imaz, I.Virto, A. Enrique & W.B. Hoogmoed. 2006. Soil Water Retention as Affected by Tillage and Residue Management in Semiarid Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 87:19-27;
Comis, D. 2007. No Shortcuts in Checking Soil Health. Agricultural Research (July 2007): 4-5. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jul07/soil0707.pdf .
Delate, K. & C.A. Cambardella. 2004. Agroecosystem Performance during Transition to Certified Organic Grain Production. Agronomy Journal. 96:1288-1298.
Drinkwater, L., P. Wagoner, and M. Sarrantonio. 1998. Legume-based cropping systems have reduced carbon and nitrogen losses. Nature 396:262–265.
Elmaz, Ö., H. Cerit, M. Özçelik, and S. Ulas. 2004. Impact of organic agriculture on the environment. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 13:1072–1078.
Eltun, R., A. Korsaeth, and O. Nordheim. 2002. A comparison of environmental, soil fertility, yield, and economical effects in six cropping systems based on an 8-year experiment in Norway. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 90:155–168.
FAO Report: Energy use in organic food systems, August 2007, Rome.
Gunapala, N., and K.M. Scow. 1998. Dynamics of soil microbial biomass and activity in conventional and organic farming systems. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30:805–816.
Hanson, J.C. and W.N. Musser. 2003. An economic evaluation of an organic grain rotation with regards to profit and risk. September 2003. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, Working Paper 03-10. http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/Agriculture%27s%20Role%20in%20GHG%20Mitigation.pdf.
International Trade Centre. (2007) Organic Farming and Climate Change.; Chavas, Jean Paul, J.L. Posner, & J.L. Hedtcke. 2009. Organic and Conventional Production Systems in the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial: II. Economic and Risk Analysis 1993-2006. Agronomy Journal 101:288-295.
IPCC, (2007b). “Summary for Policy Makers.” In IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, “Working Group III Report: Mitigation of Climate Change.” See specifically on agriculture, chapter 8. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-spm.pdf and http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg3.htm.
Khan, S., R. Mulvaney, T. Ellsworth & C. Charlie Boast. 2007. The Myth of Nitrogen Fertilization for Soil Carbon Sequestration. J. Environ. Qual. 2007 36: 1821-1832;
Liebig, M.A., and J.W. Doran. 1999. Impact of organic production practices on soil quality indicators. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1601–1609.
Mäder, P., A. Fließbach, D. Dubois, L. Gunst, P. Fried, and U. Niggli. 2002. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694–1697.
Muller A, April 2009, Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy for Developing Countries, Discussion Paper-EfD DP 09-09, Environment for Development, Kenya
Niggli, U., A. Fließbach, P. Hepperly & N.Scialabba. 2009. Low Greenhouse Gas Agriculture: Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Sustainable Farming Systems. U.N. Food & Agriculture Organization; Borron, S. 2006. Building Resilience for an Unpredictable Future: How Organic Agriculture Can Help Farmers Adapt to Climate Change. U.N. Food & Agriculture Organization.
Paustian, K., .J.M. Antle, J. Sheehan & E.A. Paul. 2006. Agriculture's Role in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation (Pew Center on Global Climate Change).
Pimentel. D., 2006 Impacts of organic faming on efficiency and energy use in agriculture. www.organicvalley.coop/fileadmin/pdf/ENERGY_SSR.pdf. 40 pages. also in Pimentel D, P. Hepperly, J. Hanson, D. Douds & R. Seidel. 2005. Environmental, Energetic, and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems. Bioscience: 55:573-582.
Ritter, Steven. 2009. Pinpointing Trends in Pesticide Use: Limited Data Indicate That Pesticide Use Has Dropped Since the 1990s. Chemical & Engineering News 87(7) (Feb.16, 2009). Available at http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/87/8707cover1a.html
Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O’Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko, 2007: Agriculture. In Climate Change, 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment- eport/ar4/wg3/ar4- wg3-chapter8.pdf
The National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition. ‘The Agriculture and Climate Change: Impacts and Opportunities at Farm Level’, January 2009, USA.
U.S. EPA. 2009. EPA Lifecycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Fuels. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/oms/renewablefuels/420f09024.htm.
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 2007. Online document. “The Bali Action Plan, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.” http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_13/application/pdf/cp_bali_action.pdf. Accessed February 12, 2009.
USDA, Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education, Smart Water Use on Your Farm or Ranch (SARE Bulletin)(2006)(available at http://www.sare.org/publications/water/water.pdf).
Wells, A.T., K.Y. Chan, and P.S. Cornish. 2000. Comparison of conventional and alternative vegetable farming systems on the properties of a yellow earth in New South Wales. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 80:47–60.
World Development Report, 2008. World Bank, Washington, United States of America.