Khan, Safdar Ullah and Awan, Rabia (2011): Contextual Assessment of Women Empowerment and Its Determinants: Evidence from Pakistan.
Download (170kB) | Preview
The main objective of this study is to evaluate women empowerment in different contexts of family planning and economic decision making within the household. Further this paper investigates its appropriate determinants sifting through sociology resource control theory and economic bargaining theory by controlling for socio-cultural intervening factors. We examine this empirically by utilizing extensive micro level data information (15,453 households) from ‘Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey’ (PSLM) for the year of 2005-06. Results suggest the presence of highly constrained and largely dichotomous empowerment within the household. Interestingly, we find that the number of children however not the sex of a child relevant in enhancing women’s empowerment. Further, the common determinants of empowerment depict varying degree of effectiveness depending on the specific context of empowerment. Moreover, socio-economic, level of education and employment status of a woman depict as effect modifier factors across the empowerment contexts and regions. Furthermore, geographic divisions within Pakistan, significantly explain the contextual empowerment of women.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Contextual Assessment of Women Empowerment and Its Determinants: Evidence from Pakistan|
|English Title:||Contextual Assessment of Women Empowerment and Its Determinants: Evidence from Pakistan|
|Keywords:||Contextual empowerment; family planning decision making; economic decision making; socio-cultural; ordered logistic regressions.|
|Subjects:||?? C42 ??
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z13 - Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology ; Social and Economic Stratification
|Depositing User:||Safdar Ullah Khan|
|Date Deposited:||11. May 2011 12:16|
|Last Modified:||30. Dec 2015 12:42|
Ackerly, B. A. (1995) ‘Testing the Tools of Development: Credit Programs, loan Involvement, and Women's Empowerment’, IDS Bulletin 26(3): 56-68.
Anderson S. and M. Eswaran (2009’ ‘What determines female autonomy? Evidence from Bangladesh’, Journal of Development Economics 90:179-191.
Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2000) ‘Women in Pakistan’, Country Briefing Paper, Asian Development Bank.
Cain, M. et al. (1979) ‘Class, patriarchy, and women's work in Bangladesh’, Population and Development Review 5(3): 405-438.
Batliwala, S. (1994) ‘The meaning of Women’s Empowerment: New Concepts from Action’,in Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment and Rights. G. Sen, A. Germain, and L.C. Chen, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cheema, I. A. (2005). ‘A Profile of poverty in Pakistan’, Center of Research on Poverty Reduction and Income Distribution (CRPRID). Planning Commission, Islamabad.
Cubbins, L. A. (1991) ‘Women, Men, and the Division of Power: A Study of Gender Stratification in Kenya’, Social Forces 69:1063-1083.
Dixon-Mueller, R. (1978) ‘Rural women at work: strategies for development in South Asia’. Baltimore: Published for Resources for the Future by the Johns Hopkins Press.
Donnan, H. (1997) ‘Family and household in Pakistan’. In: Donnan H, Selier F (eds). Family and gender in Pakistan: domestic organization in a Muslim society. New Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation.
Dyson, T. and Mick, M. (1983a) ‘On Kinship Structure, Female Autonomy, and Demographic Behavior in India’, Population and Development Review 9:35-60.
Ferree, M. M. and E. J. Hall (1996) ‘Rethinking Stratification from a Feminist Perspective: Gender, Race, and Class in Mainstream Textbooks’, American Sociological Review 61:929-50.
Frankenberg, E. and D. Thomas (2001) ‘Measuring Power’, Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, Discussion Paper No 113. Washington, D. C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Garcia, B. and O. de Oliveira. (1995) ‘Gender relations in urban middle-class and working-class households in Mexico’, in Engendering Wealth and Well-being: Empowerment for Global Change. R. L. Blumberg and et al. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 195-210.
Goetz, A. M. and R. S. Gupta (1996) ‘Who Takes the Credit? Gender, Power and control over loan Use in Rural Credit Programs in Bangladesh’, World Development 24(1): 45-63.
Hafeez, S. (1998) Sociology of power dynamics in Pakistan. Islamabad: Book City Press.
Hashemi, S. et al. (1996) ‘Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh’, World Development 24 (4): 635-653.
Jejeebhoy, S. (2000) ‘Women’s autonomy in rural India: Its dimensions, determinants, and the influence of context’, in Harriet B. Presser and Gita Sen (eds.), Women’s Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond Cairo. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jejeebhoy, S. and Z. A. Sathar (2001) ‘Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region’, Population and Development Review 27(4): 687-712.
Kane, E. W. And L. Sanchez (1994) ‘Family Status and Criticism of Gender Inequality at Home and at Work’, Social Forces 72:1079-102.
Keller, B. and D.C. Mbwewe. (1991) ‘Policy and Planning for the Empowerment of Zambia’s Women Farmers’, Canadian Journal of Development Studies 12(1):75-88
Kabeer, N. (2001) ‘Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment’, In Discussing Women’s Empowerment-Theory and Practice. Sida Studies No. 3. Novum Grafiska AB: Stockholm.
Kabeer, N. (1998) ‘Money Can’t Buy Me Love’? Re-evaluating Gender, Credit and Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh’, IDS Discussion Paper 363.
Kabeer, N. (2001) ‘Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment,’ in Sisask, A. (ed.) Discussing Women’s Empowerment: Theory and Practice, pp. 17–57, Stockholm: Sida
Keller, B. and D. C. Mbwewe (1991) ‘Policy and Planning for the Empowerment of Zambia's Women Farmers’, Canadian Journal of Development Studies 12(1): 75-88.
Khan, A. (1999) ‘Mobility of Women and Access to Health and Family Planning Services in Pakistan’, Reproductive Health Matters 7(14): 39-48.
Kantor, P. (2003) ‘Women’s Empowerment Through Home-based Work: Evidence from India’, Development and Change 34(3):425-445
Kishor, S. (2000a) ‘Empowerment of women in Egypt and links to the survival and health of their infants’, in Harriet B. Presser and Gita Sen (eds.), Women’s Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond Cairo. New York: Oxford University Press.
Malhotra, A. and M. Mather (1997) ‘Do Schooling and Work Empower Women in Developing Countries? Gender and Domestic Decisions in Sri Lanka’, Sociological Forum 12(4): 599-630.
Malhotra, A. et al. (2002) ‘Measuring Women's Empowerment as a Variable in International Development, Gender and Development Group’, Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Mason, K. (1998) ‘Wives’ Economic Decision-making Power in the Family in Five Asian Countries’, The Changing Family in Comparative Perspective: Asia and The United States, edited by K. O. Mason et al. Honolulu: East-West Center.
Mason, K. O. and H. L. Smith (2000) ‘Husbands versus Wives Fertility Goals and Use of Contraception: The Influence of Gender Context in Five Asian Countries’, Demography 37(3): 299-311.
Mumtaz, Z. (2002) ‘Gender and Reproduction Health: a need for reconceptualisation”. Unpublished PhD thesis, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
Nussbaum, M. (2000) ‘Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach’, New York: Cambridge Press.
PSLM (2005-06) ‘Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey’, National/Provincial report. Islamabad, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan.
Rowlands, Jo. (1995) ‘Empowerment Examined’, Development in Practice 5(2):101-107.
Rahman, L. and Rao, V. (2004) ‘The determinants of gender equity in India: examining Dyson and Moore's thesis with new data’, Population and Development Review 30: 239–268.
Sathar, Z. A. and S. Kazi (1997) ‘Women’s autonomy, livelihood and fertility: a study of rural Punjab’, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad.
Safilios-Rothschild, C. (1982) ‘Female Power, Autonomy and Demogrpahic Change in the Third World’, In Women's Role and Population Trends in the Third World, edited by R. Anker, M. Buvinic, and N. Youssef. London & Canberra: Croom Helm.
Sathar, Z. A. et al. (2000) ‘Women's autonomy in context of rural Pakistan’, Pakistan Development Review 39(2): 89-110.
Sathar, Z. (1996) ‘Women’s schooling and autonomy as factors in fertility change in Pakistan: some empirical evidence’ in Jeffery R. and A. Basu (eds.) Girls schooling, women’s autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, Saga Publications, New Delhi.
Schuler, S. R. and S. M. Hashemi (1994) ‘Credit Programs, Women’s Empowerment, and Contraceptive Use in Rural Bangladesh’, Studies in Family Planning 25(2): 65-76.
Schuler, S. R. et al. (1997) ‘The Influences of Changing Roles and Status in Bangladesh's Fertility Transition: Evidence from a Study of Credit Programs and Contraceptive use’, World Development 25(4).
Winkvist, A. and Z. A. Akhtar (2000) ‘God should give daughters to rich families only: attitudes towards childbearing among low-income women in Punjab, Pakistan’, Social Science & Medicine 51: 73-81.