Dumludag, Devrim (2002): The Political Economy of Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey 1950-1980.
Download (3MB) | Preview
In the Turkish Republic, especially in the 1960s and 1970s Foreign Investment was regarded as a very suspicious subject as a result of the capitulations and a substantial amount of Ottoman Debt. There were many debates about the issue in the press and in public and most of the stuIes in hs period had generally a normative way of looking at the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) issue.
Although Law 6224, the encouragement of Forelgn Investment, which was designed as a liberal law, was enacted in 1954, it was used as a law discouraging forelgn investment due to this suspicious attitude. During this period a very small amount of FDI entered into Turkey and its share was very insipficant in the Turkish economy.
When we compare the amount of FDI corning to Turkey with the corresponding amounts in some other developing countries we clearly see that our findings strengthens that the share of FDI in Turkey is insignificant. These countries enjoyed an inflow of FDI averaging one-three bdhon dollars per year while Turkey received averapg eight-ten million dollars per year in this period.
This thesis studies the FDI in Turkey between 1950 and 1980 and examines the contribution of the FDI to the economic growth, employment and tax revenues. In addition, it aims to ascertain the obstacles and impediments that obstruct the greater flow of private foreign investment into Turkey.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Political Economy of Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey 1950-1980|
|Keywords:||foreign direct investment, turkey, political economy|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business > F23 - Multinational Firms ; International Business
F - International Economics > F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business > F21 - International Investment ; Long-Term Capital Movements
|Depositing User:||devrim dumludag|
|Date Deposited:||07. Jul 2011 09:07|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 14:37|
Aharoni,Yair. The Foreign Investment Decision Process. Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Admulistration, 1966.
Alpar, Cem. Cokuluslu Sirketler ve Ekonomik Kalkinma. Ankara : Ankara Iktisadi ve Ticari İlimler Akademisi, 1977.
Ashkin, Djemal. Evaluation ofprivate Foreign Investment Climate in Tzlrky. Florida State University,D.B.A., 1972.
Avcioglu, Dogan. Türkiye'nin Düzeni Ankara: Bilgi Yaymevi, 1968.
Baran, Paul. The PoliticalEconomy ofGrowth. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1968.
Barkey, Henri J. The State and the Industrialization Crisis in Turkey (Colorado: Westview Press 1990).
Behrman, Jack.N. "Promoting Free World Economic Development through Direct Investment", American conomic Review (May 1960).
Berksoy, Taner., Suut A Do&uel, Fatma Dogruel. Tiirkbe'de Yabann Sermqe. Istanbul: Tuses,1989.
Boratav, Korkut "1ktisat TarihI" (1908-1980) in Tiirkbe Tarihi 4 CagdaS Tiirkbe 1908-1980 (Istanbul: Cem Yaymevi). 1997.
Bugra, Ayse. State and Business in Modem Tdy A Comparative Study. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Cardoso, Fernando H. "Dependency and Development in Latin America" in The New Left Review (1 972).
Devlet Planlama Teakilatl. First Five Year Development Plan, 1963-1967. Ankara: Turkish Republic Prime Minister, 1963.
Dos Santos, Theotonio. "The Structure of Dependence", American Economic Review. May, 1970.
Dunning, John H. Globahation and the Theory of MNE Activity in The Globalization of Multinational Enterprise Activity and Economic Development ed. Neil Hood and Stephen Young (New York: St Martin's Pres), 2000.
Dunning, John H. "The Economic Theory of the Fhs as the Basis for a 'Core' Theory of International Production7' in Cumnt Iwes in International Beed. I yanatul Islam and Wdham Shepherd (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing) 1997.
Dunning, John H. "Changes in the Level and Structure of International Production: the Last One Hundred Years", International Investment. ed. Peter J. Buckley, 1990.
Dunning, John H. "Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the MNE: A Search for an Eclectic Approach", in B. Ohlin ed. The International Allocation of Economic Activig. London: Holrnes and Meier, 1977.
Eralp, Atilla. "Tiirkiye'de 1zlenen 1thal 1kameci Kalhnma Stratejisi ve Yabanci Serrnaye" in ME77J Studies in Development. Special Issue, 1981.
Erdilek, Asun. Direct Foreign Investment in Turkish Manu/f~ttlringT. ubingen: Mohr, 1982.
Erdilek, Asun. "Turkey's New Open Door Policy of Direct Foreign Investment: A Critical Analysis of Problems and Prospects", M E W Studies in Development no. 13 (1 986).
Evans, Peter. Dpendent Development The Allience of Multinational, State and Local Capital in Brael New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979.
Goymen, K. And G. Tiiziin. "Foreign Capital in Turkey" in M E W Studies in Developmet. No 11 (1984).
Grieco, Joseph M. "Between Dependency and Autonomy: Ind~a's Experience with the International Computer Industry", International Ogani~ation3. 6, No.3, (Summer, 1982).
Grosse, Robert. Multinationals in Latin America. London: Routledge, 1989.
Giilalp, Haldun. "Tiirluye7de 1thal 1kamesi Bunalum ve Dtga A~ha"in METU Sttldies in Development, no.7(1980).
Hennart, Jean-Franqois. "The Transaction Cost Theory of the Multinational Enterprise", in Christos N. Pitelis and Roger Sugden (eds), The Nature of the Transnational Fitm, London: Routledge, 1991.
Herschlag, Z.Y. Turk9 the Challange ofGmwth. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1968.
Hymer, Stephen. The Theovy oflntemational Operations. Cambridge, MA: MIT press, 1976.
Johnson, Harry G. "The Efficiency and Welfare Implications of the International Corporations" in Charles Kindleberger (ed), The International Corporation. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1970.
Karluk, S. Rtdvan.Tiirkiye Ye Yaban~Sz emqe Yatznmlan. 1stanbul: 1stanbul Ticaret Odasi, 1982.
Kazgan, Giilten, "Montajci Sanayilegme", Cumhtlriyet, August, 18, 1967.
Keyder, Caklar. Tiirk&e'de Devlet ve SznzJlar Pstanbul: 1letigim Yaymlan), 1989
Keyder, Caklar. "The Political Economy of Turhsh Democracy", New Left Review (1979).
Kindleberger, Charles. American Investment Abroad. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969.
Kobrin, Stephen J. "Testing the Bargaining Hypothesis in the Manufacturing Sector in Developing Countries", International Organi?ation 41, no.4 (Autumn, 1987).
Kojirna, Kiyoshi. "Japanese-Style Direct Foreign Investment", Japanese Economic Stades. (Spring, 1986).
Kojima, Kiyoshi Direct Foreign Investment A Japanese Model of Multinational Busines Operations London: Croorn Helm, 1978 .
Krueger Ann. "Foreign Trade Repes and Economic Development: Lberalization Attempts and Consequences". NBER, A Special Conferences Series, vol. 10 (1978).
Krugrnan Paul R. and Edward M. Graham. "Economic impacty', Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. Second Edtion. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics, 1989.
Lenin, V.I.. Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. New York: International Publishers, 1977.
Mikesell, Raymond F.. US Private and Government Invest Abroad. Eugene: University of Oregon Books, 1962.
Moran, Theodore H. "Multinational Corporations and Dependency: A Dialogue for Dependentistas and Non Dependentistas", International Organiqation, 32 (Winter, 1978).
Nahum, Bernar. Ko$.'ta 44yzlzm Qstanbul: Mdhyet Yaymlan, 1988).
North, Douglas C. "International Capital Movements in astorical Perspective" in U.S. Private and GovernmentAbroad ed. Raymond Mikesell (Eugene: University of Oregon Books) 1962.
Nurkse, Ragnar. Pmbh of Capital Formation in Underdeveloped Countries. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1953.
Oksay, Kazim. Tiirkbe 'de Yabana Semqe Yatznm Kzhvap. ~stanbulD: o@n Kardeg,1967.
~k~iiGnii,n diiz. 1920-1930 Yzlhn Arastnah Kzrmlan Tiirk Anonim Jirketlerinde Yabann Sermqe Somna, (Ankara: Ankara Universitesi Yayml, 1971).
Pamuk, Sevket. The Ottoman Empire and Empean Capitalim, 1820-1913: Trade, Investment and Pmduction. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Pamuk, Sevket and Caglar Keyder. "Tiirktye'de Rantlann Ekonomi Politijji", MillBet, January 12, 1979.
Pamuk, Sevket and Roger Owen A Histoy ofMiddle East Economies in the Twentieth Centuly (Cambridge: Harvard University Pres, 1999).
Petrochilos, George A. Foreign Direct Investment and the Development Process, The Case of Greece. Vermont: Avebury, 1989.
Penrose E.T. "Foreign Investment and the Growth of Firm, Economic Journal. 66 (June 1956).
Robinson, D. Richard. Cam in IntemationalBtrsiness. New York: Rtnehart and Winston, 1962.
Robinson, Harry J. The Motivation and Flow of Private Foreign Investment. Menlo Park, California: Stanford Research Institute, 1961.
Ricardo, David. The Pn'nciples ofPoliticalEconomy and Taxation. London: G Bell and Sons, 1932.
Schreiber, Jordan C. US Corporate Investment in Taiwan. New York: The Dunellen Company, 1970.
Selik, Mehmet. Tiirkije'de Yabann O?el Sermaye (1923-1960), Ankara: Turk 1ktisad Geligmesi Projesi, 1961.
Singer, Hans.W. and Javeda A. Ansari. Rzch and Poor Countn'es. London: Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1992.
Singer, Morris. The EconomicAduance ofTtlrky (Ankara: Turkish Economic Society), 1977.
Smith, Adam. The Wealth ofNations. London: Colher, 1902.
Srinivasan, T.N.. Handbook of Development Economicx. Volume 2. ed, H. Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1989.
Sahin, Mehmet. Tiirkije'de Yabancz Semqe Yatzmlan. Ankara: Ekonornik ve Sosyal Yaymlar,1975.
Tuncer, Baran. Tiirkbee'al. Yabancz Semcye Somu. Ankara: Ankara ~niversitesi Siyasal Bilgder Fakiiltesi Yaymlan, 1968.
Tezel, Yahya Sezai. Ctlmhutzjiet Doneminin Iktisadi Tarihi (1923-1950)~ stanbulT: arih Vakfi Yurt Yaymlan, 2000.
Tezel, Yahya Sezai. "Birinci Biiyi~k Millet Meclisinde Yabancl Serrnaye Sorunu" in Ankara Sijasal Bilgier Fakdtesi Dergisi. 25. Ankara: Ankara ~niversitesi Siyasal Bilgder Fakiiltesi Yaymlan, (Mart 1970).
Tekeli, 1lhan and Selim 1lhn. Java4 Sonrasz Ortanzznak 1947 Tirkije iktisadi IGAznma Planz. Ankara: Orta Do@ Teknik Universitesi, 1974.
Turgut, Serdar. Denzokrat Parti Donemind Tiirkije Ekonomisi: Ekonomik IGIkznma Siire~Ien' U~erine bir Deneme, (Ankara: Adalet Matbaacdtk, 199 1)
Tiiziin, Giirel "1950-1960 Doneminde Sanaytlegme" in 75 Yzlh carklarakn Ch$'lere (~stanbul: Tarih Vakfi Yaymlan), 1999.
UNCTAD. Report b_y the Semtan'et ofthe UNCTAD. Geneva: UNCTAD, 1999.
Uras, Giingor. Tirkiye'de Yabancz Semqe Yatznmlan. Istanbul: Formiil Matbaas~1, 979.
Vernon, Raymond. "International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle", Quarter4 Journal of Economics. (May, 1966).