Mukherjee, Dipa (2010): Child workers in India: an overview of macro dimensions. Published in: Prankrishna Pal, Alok Bhaumik and Kausik Gupta (ed) ‘Emerging Issues in the Indian Economy’, Regal Publications, New Delhi, 2011 (2011)
Download (120kB) | Preview
Child labour is in focus for last two decades as it robs children of the chance to enhance human capital. This paper examines the Indian situation using data from 50th, 55th and 61st rounds of NSSO Surveys. Child Workers have declined from 9.1 million in 1993 to 5.8 million in 2004, declining by 0.04 percent per annum. Incidence of Child Labour is more in Rural areas, higher among 10-14 years age-group, and more prominent among Boys, and quite disparate across states. Another 30 million children in 2003-04, about 13 percent of total, are ‘Nowhere Children’. Incidence of Domestic Duties and Nowhere Children are higher among girls. Poverty emerges to be necessary condition thereby preparing the breeding ground but not sufficient to drive the children to the labour market. Lack of Educational infrastructure is found to be very important in this respect. This includes not only the physical but also the human component, which is emerging to be more crucial. Poverty alleviation programmes must therefore be complemented by expansion of educational infrastructure for eradicating child labour.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Child workers in India: an overview of macro dimensions|
|English Title:||Child Workers in India: An Overview of Macro Dimensions|
|Keywords:||Child Labour; Poverty; Nowhere Children; Schooling; India;|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J13 - Fertility ; Family Planning ; Child Care ; Children ; Youth
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General > J01 - Labor Economics: General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
|Depositing User:||Dipa Mukherjee|
|Date Deposited:||27. Nov 2011 18:59|
|Last Modified:||24. Sep 2015 10:21|
Addison, T., Bhalotra, S., Coulter, F. & Heady, C. (1997) - Child Labour in Pakistan and Ghana: A Comparative Study. Centre for Development Studies, University of Bath: UK.
Anker, Richard (2000) – “Conceptual and research frameworks for the economics of child labour and its elimination”, Working Paper, ILO. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva.
Ashagrie, K. (1993) – “Statistics on Child Labour”, Bulletin of Labour Statistics, 3: 11-24.
Basu, Kaushik (1999) - “The Economics and Law of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace,” Journal of Economic Perspective, Vol. 17. No. 3 (Summer),
Basu, Kaushik and Pham Hoang Van (1998) - “The Economics of Child Labor,” American Economic Review, Vol. 88. No. 3 (September), pp.412-427.
Beegle, Kathleen, Rajeev Dehejia, and Roberta Gatti, (2003a) – “Why should we care about child labor? The education, labor market, and health consequences of child labor”, Policy Research Working Paper Series 3479, The World Bank.
Beegle, Kathleen, Rajeev Dehejia, and Roberta Gatti (2003) – “Child Labor, Income Shocks, and Access to Credit”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3075. accessed from ssrn.com/abstract=636437 on 28th October, 2008
Bhalotra, Sonia and Christopher Heady (2003) - “Child Farm Labor: The Wealth Paradox,” World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 17. No. 2, pp.197-227.
Bhalotra, Sonia and Christopher Heady (2000) – “Child Farm Labour: Theory and Evidence” Bourguignon, François, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, and
Phillippe G. Latte (2003) - “Conditional Cash Transfers, Schooling, and Child Labor: Micro- Simulating Brazil’s Bolsa Escola Program,” World Bank Economic Review,
Burra, Neera (1995) - Born to work: Child labour in India, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Chandrashekkar, C.P. (1997) - “The economic consequences of the abolition of child labour: An Indian case study”, Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1997, pp. 137-179.
Chaudhuri, D.P. and E.J. Wilson (2000) – “The Challenge of Child Labour in Rural India: A Multi- Dimensional Problem in Need of an Orchestrated Response”, University of Woolongong Working Paper, No 2000-2: Australia.
Cigno, A. and F. Rosati (2000) - “Why do Indian children work and is it bad for them?”, IZA Discussion Paper No. 115, February, IZA, Bonn.
Edmonds, Eric V. (2004) - “Does Illiquidity Alter Child Labor and Schooling Decisions? Evidence from Household Responses to Anticipated Cash Transfers in South Africa,” NBER Working Paper No. 10265.
Edmonds, Eric V. (2004a) – “Household composition and the response of child labor supply to product market integration: evidence from Vietnam”, Policy Research Working Paper Series 3235, The World Bank
Galli, Rosanna (2001) – “The economic impact of child labour”, Decent Work Research Programme Discussion Paper DP/128, ILO. International Institute of Labour Studies, Geneva, 32 p., 2001.
Goldin, Claudia and Lawrence Katz (2003) - “Mass Secondary Schooling and the State: The Role of State Compulsion in the High School Movement,” NBER Working Paper No. 10075.
Grootaert, Christiaan and Ravi Kanbur (1995) – “Child labour: An economic perspective”, International Labour Review, Vol. 134, No. 2
Grootaert, Christiaan and Harry Anthony Patrinos (1999) - The policy analysis of child labor: A comparative study. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Heady, Chris (2003) – “The effect of child labour on learning achievement”, World Development, Vol.31, No.2, pp.385-398
ILO (2002) - Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates on Child Labour, ILO, Geneva.
Jafarey, Saqib and Sajal Lahiri (2002) - “Will trade sanctions reduce child labour? The role of credit markets”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2002, pp. 137-156.
Lieten, Kristoffel and Ben White (eds) (2001) - Child labour: Policy options. Aksant Publishers, Amsterdam.
Majumdar, Manabi (2001) - “Child labour as a human security problem: Evidence from India”, Oxford Development Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2001, pp. 279-304.
Mishra, Lakshmidhar (2000) - Child labour in India, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Rammohan, Anu (2000) - “The interaction of child labour and schooling in developing countries: A theoretical perspective”, Journal of Economic Development, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2000, pp. 85-99.
Ravallion, Martin and Quentin Wodon (2000) - “Does child labour displace schooling? Evidence on behavioural responses to an enrolment subsidy”, Economic Journal, Vol. 110, 2000, pp. 158-175.
Ray, R. (2000a), “Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study”, Journal of Population Economics, 13(1), Feb.,3-19.
Ray, R. (2000b), “Child labour and child schooling in Ghana”, Working Paper 2000-5, University of Tasmania, February.
Ray, Ranjan (2000c) – “How does child labour and schooling interact with adult labour?”, Policy Research Paper No. 2179, World Bank, Washington, D.C., accessed from www.worldbank.org on 25 October, 2008
Reddy, Nandana (2000) - “The Right to Organize: The working children’s movement in India”, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2, accessed from www.cs.org/newpage/index.cfm on 26th October, 2008
Rosati, Furio and Partha Deb (2002) - Determinants of child labor and school attendance: The role of household unobservables. UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 39 p., 2002.
UNICEF (2005) - End Child Exploitation: Child Labour Today, UNICEF, UK, London.
Weiner, M. (1991) - The Child and the State in India. Child labour and Education Policy in Comparative Perspective (Princeton, Princeton UP, 1991).
NSSO (2006) - Unit Level Records on Seventh Quinquennial Survey on Employment and Unemployment in India 2004-05, NSS 61st Round - July 2004-June 2005, National Sample Survey Organisation, Government Of India
NSSO (2000) - Unit Level Records on Sixth Quinquennial Survey on Employment and Unemployment in India 1999-2000, NSS 55th Round - July 1999-June 2000, National Sample Survey Organisation, Government Of India
NSSO (1996) - Unit Level Records on Sixth Quinquennial Survey on Employment and Unemployment in India 1993-1994, NSS Fiftieth Round - July 1993-June 1994, National Sample Survey Organisation, Government Of India.