Khalil, Elias (2007): The Mirror-Neuron Paradox: How Far is Sympathy from Compassion, Indulgence, and Adulation?
Download (241kB) | Preview
The mirror-neuron system (MNS) becomes instigated when the spectator empathizes with the principal’s intention. MNS also involves imitation, where empathy is irrelevant. While the former may attenuate the principal’s emotion, the latter paradoxically reinforces it. This paper proposes a solution of the contradictory attenuation/reinforcement functions of fellow-feeling by distinguishing two axes: “rationality axis” concerns whether the action is efficient or suboptimal; “intentionality axis” concerns whether the intention is “wellbeing” or “evil.” The solution shows how group solidarity differs from altruism and fairness; how revulsion differs from squeamishness; how evil differs from selfishness; and how racial hatred differs from racial segregation.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Mirror-Neuron Paradox: How Far is Sympathy from Compassion, Indulgence, and Adulation?|
|Keywords:||Adam Smith; David Hume’s Fellow-Feeling Paradox; Desire; Paris Hilton; Crankcase Oil Problem; Comprehension; Understanding (empathy or theory of mind); Imitation; Status Inequality; Elitism; Authority; Pity: Obsequiousness; Racial Segregation; Racial Hatred; Rationality Axis; Intentionality Axis; Propriety; Impropriety; Revulsion; Social Preferences; Altruism; Assabiya (group solidarity); Fairness; Schadenfreude (envy/spite/malevolence/evil); Vengeance|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D0 - General > D01 - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D69 - Other
|Depositing User:||Elias Khalil|
|Date Deposited:||18. Jun 2007|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 17:14|
Arrow, Kenneth J. “Extended Sympathy and the Possibility of Social Choice.” American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, February 1977, 67:1, pp. 219-225.
Baron-Cohen, S. Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambride, MA: MIT Press, 1995.
________, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D.J. Cohen (eds.) Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Basch, Michael. “Empathic Understanding: A Review of the Concept and Some Theoretical Considerations.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1983, 31:1, pp. 101-26.
Becker, Gary S. “Altruism in the Family and Selfishness in the Market Place.” Economica, February 1981, 48, pp. 1-15.
________. “A Note on Restaurant Pricing and Other Examples of Social Influences on Price.” Journal of Political Economy, October 1991, 99:5, pp. 1109-1116.
________. Accounting for Tastes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.
________ and Kevin M. Murphy. “A Simple Theory of Advertising as a Good or Bad.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1993, 108:4, pp. 941-964.
Bénabou, Roland and Jean Tirole. “Incentives and Prosocial Behavior.” American Economic Review, December 2006, 96:5, pp. 1652-1678.
Bernheim, B. Douglas and Oded Stark. “Altruism Within the Family Reconsidered: Do Nice Guys Finish Last?” American Economic Review, 1988, 78: 1034–1045.
Binmore, Ken. Game Theory and the Social Contract. Volume 1: Playing Fair. MIT Press, 1994.
________. Game Theory and the Social Contract. Volume 2: Just Playing. MIT Press, 1998.
Bowles, Samuel. Microeconomics: Behavior, Institutions and Evolution. New York: Russell Sage; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Buccino, Giovanni, Fausta Lui , Nicola Canessa, Ilaria Patteri, Giovanna Lagravinese, Francesca Benuzzi, Carlo A. Porro, Giacomo Rizzolatti. “Neural Circuits Involved in the Recognition of Actions Performed by Nonconspecifics: An fMRI Study.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2004; 16, pp. 114-126.
Burt, Austin and Robert Trivers. Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Darwall, Stephen. “Empathy, Sympathy, Care.” In Darwall’s Welfare and Rational Care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002, ch. 3.
________. The Second-Person Standpoint: Morality, Respect, and Accountability. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Dupuy, Jean-Pierre. “Intersubjectivity and Embodiment.” Journal of Bioeconomics, 2004, 6:3, pp. 275-294.
________ “Invidious Sympathy in The Theory of Moral Sentiment.” Adam Smith Review, 2006, 2, pp. 98-123.
Ewing, Michael T., Colin Jevons, and Elias Khalil. “Brand Senescence: Towards a Developmental Theory of Brand Mortality.” A working paper, 2007.
Feather, N.T. and Nairn, Katherine. “Resentment, Envy, Schadenfreude, and Sympathy: Effects of own and other’s Deserved and Undeserved Status.” Australian Journal of Psychology, August 2005, 57:2, pp. 87-102.
Fontaine, Phillipe. “Recognition and Economic Behavior: Sympathy and Empathy in Historical Perspective.” Economics and Philosophy, 1997, 13, pp. 261-280.
________. “The Changing Place of Empathy in Welfare Economics.” History of Political Economy, Fall 2001, 33:3, pp. 387-409.
Frank, Robert H. Passions Within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988.
________. Microeconomics and Behavior, 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Irwin 2006.
Friedman, Daniel and Nirvikar Singh. “Negative Reciprocity: The Coevolution of Memes and Genes.” Department of Economics working papers #560, University of California at Santa Cruz, 2003.
________. “Vengefulness Evolves in Small Groups.” Department of Economics working papers #559, University of California at Santa Cruz, 2004.
Fudenberg, Drew and David K. Levine. “A Dual-Self Model of Impulse Control.” American Economic Review, December 2006, 96:5, pp. 1449-1476.
Gallese, V., C. Keysers, and G. Rizzolatti. “A Unifying View of the Basis of Social Cognition.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2004, 8:9, pp. 396-403.
Gintis, Herbert. “Solving the Puzzle of Prosociality.” Rationality and Society, 2003, 15, pp. 155-187.
________, Samuel Bowles, Robert Boyd, and Ernst Fehr (eds.). Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Girard, René. Deceit, Desire and the Novel: Self and Other in Literary Structure, translated by Yvonne Freccero. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.
Gladstein, Gerald A. “The Historical Roots of Contemporary Empathy Research.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1984, 20:1, pp. 38-59.
________ et al. Empathy and Counseling: Explorations in Theory and Research. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
Gordon, Robert. “Sympathy, Simulation, and the Impartial Spectator.” Ethics, Summer 1995. (Reprinted in Larry May, Marilyn Friedman, and Andy Clark (eds.) Mind and Morals: Essays on Ethics and Cognitive Science Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.)
Haakonssen, K. “Introduction.” In Adam Smith’s The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Haig, David. “Genetic Conflicts in Human Pregnancy.” Quarterly Review of Biology, December 1993, 68:4, pp. 495-532.
________. “On Intrapersonal Reciprocity.” Evolution and Human Behavior, 2004, 24, pp. 418-425.
Harsanyi, John. “Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility.” Journal of Political Economy, 1955, 63, pp. 309–321.
________. Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time, trans. John Macquarrie, Edward Robinson. New York: Harper, 1962.
Hirshleifer, Jack. “On the Emotions as Guarantors of Threats and Promises.” In John Dupré (ed.) The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987, pp. 307-326.
Hollis, Martin. Trust Within Reason. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Hurley, Susan and Nick Chater (eds.). Perspectives on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science, 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Ibn Khaldûn. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, 3 vols., 2nd edition. Trans. From the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal, Bollingen Series XLIII. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Karni, Edi, and David Schmeidler. “Fixed Preferences and Changing Tastes.” American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, May 1990, 80:2, pp. 262-267.
Khalil, Elias L. “Beyond Self-Interest and Altruism: A Reconstruction of Adam Smith's Theory of Human Conduct.” Economics and Philosophy, October 1990, 6:2, pp. 255-273.
________. “Nature and Abstract Labor in Marx.” Social Concept, June 1992, 6:2, pp. 91-117.
________. “Respect, Admiration, Aggrandizement: Adam Smith as Economic Psychologist.” Journal of Economic Psychology, September 1996, 17:5, pp. 555-577.
________. “Is Justice the Primary Feature of the State? Adam Smith's Critique of Social Contract Theory.” European Journal of Law and Economics, November 1998, 6:3, pp. 215-230.
________. “Symbolic Products: Prestige, Pride and Identity Goods.” Theory and Decision, August 2000a, 49:1, pp. 53-77.
________. “Beyond Natural Selection and Divine Intervention: The Lamarckian Implication of Adam Smith's Invisible Hand.” Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 2000b, 10:4, pp. 373-393.
________. “Adam Smith and Three Theories of Altruism.” Recherches Économiques de Louvain – Louvain Economic Review, 2001, 67:4, pp. 421-435.
________. “Is Adam Smith Liberal?” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, December 2002a, 158:4, pp. 664-694.
________. “Similarity vs. Familiarity: When Empathy Becomes Egocentric.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, February 2002b, 25:1, p. 41.
________. “What is Altruism?” Journal of Economic Psychology, February 2004, 25:1, pp. 97-123.
________. “An Anatomy of Authority: Adam Smith as Political Theorist.” Cambridge Journal of Economics, January 2005, 29:1, pp. 57-71.
________. “Introduction: Smith the Hedgehog.” Adam Smith Review, 2006, 2, pp. 3-20.
________. “Rank Fetishism and Corruption: Why the Adulation of Vacuous Celebrities can Enhance Productivity.” A working paper, 2007a.
________. “The Moral Justification of Enslavement.” A working paper, 2007b.
________. “The Cognitivist Fallacy: The Heckman Puzzle.” A working paper, 2007c.
________. “The Ugly Face of Desire: A Theory of Evil.” A working paper, 2007d.
________. “Tastes.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd ed., Macmillan Reference USA, Editor-in-Chief: William A. Darity, 2008, in press.
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. London: Mandarin, (1960) 1989.
Levine, David K. “Modeling Altruism and Spitefulness in Experiments.” Review of Economic Dynamics, 1998, 1, pp. 593-622.
Levy, David M. How the Dismal Science Got its Name: Classical Economics & the Ur-text of Racial Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
________ and Sandra J. Peart. “Sympathy and Approbation in Hume and Smith: A Solution to the other Rational Species Problem.” Economics and Philosophy, October 2004, 20:2, pp. 331-349.
Lewis, Michael and Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones (eds.). Handbook of Emotions. New York: Guilford Press, 2000, pp. 637-653.
Lipps, Theodor. “Empathy, Inner Imitation, and Sense-Feelings.” In Melvin Rader (ed.) A Modern Book of Esthetics: An Anthology, 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, (1935) 1960, pp. 374-382.
Marx, Karl. Grundrisse, translated with a foreword by Martin Nicolaus. New York: Vintage, 1973.
________. Capital, vol. 1, intro. by Ernest Mandel. Harmondsworth: Penguin and London: New Left Books, 1976.
McCloskey, Deirdre N. The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Meltzoff, A.N. and A. Gopnik. “The Role of Imitation in Understanding Persons and Developing a Theory of Mind.” In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D.J. Cohen (eds.) Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Autism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Miller, William Ian. The Anatomy of Disgust. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Anti-Christ: Curse on Christianity. In The Nietzsche Reader, ed. By Keith Ansell Pearson and Duncan Large. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.
Rizzolatti, Giacomo, L. Fadiga, L. Fogassi, and V. Ballege. “Resonance Behaviours and Mirror Neurons.” Archives Italiennes De Biologie, 1999, 137, pp. 88-99.
Rizzolatti, Giacomo and L. Craighero. “Mirror Neuron: A Neurological Approach to Empathy.” A working paper, University of Parma, Parma, Italy, 2004a.
________. “The Mirror-Neuron System.” Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2004b, 27, pp. 169-192
Rozin, Paul, Jonathan Haidt, and Clark R. McCauley. “Disgust.” In Michael Lewis and Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones (eds.) Handbook of Emotions. New York: Guilford Press, 2000, pp. 637-653.
Rustichini. Aldo. “Neuroeconomics: Present and future.” Games and Economic Behavior, 2005, 52:2, pp. 201-212.
Scheler, Max. The Nature of Sympathy; trans. by Peter Heath, intro. by W. Stark. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1954.
Sen, Amartya K. "Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1977, 6:4, pp. 317-344.
Smith, Adam. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, eds. D.D. Raphael and A.L Macfie. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.
________. The Correspondence of Adam Smith, ed. E.C. Mossner and I.S. Moss. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.
________. Lectures on Jurisprudence, edited by R.L Meek, D.D. Raphael, and P.G. Stein. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.
Stein, Edith (Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross Discalced Carmelite). The Science of the Cross, trans. by Josephine Koeppel. Washington, DC: ICS Publications, 2002.
________. On the Problem of Empathy, 2nd ed. translated by Waltraut Stein, foreword by Erwin W. Straus. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, (1917) 1970.
Stigler, George J. and Gary S. Becker. "DE Gustibus Non Est Disputandum." American Economic Review, March 1977, 67:1, pp. 76-90.
Sugden, Robert. “Beyond Sympathy and Empathy: Adam Smith's Concept of Fellow-Feeling.” Economics and Philosophy, 2002, 18:1, pp. 63-87.
Sunstein, Cass R. and Richard Thaler. “Libertarian Paternalism is Not an Oxymoron.” University of Chicago Law Review, Fall 2003, 70:4.
Sunstein, Cass R. and Martha C. Nussbaum (eds.). Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Thaler, Richard H. and Hersh M. Shefrin. “An Economic Theory of Self-Control.” Journal of Political Economy, April 1981, 89:2, pp. 392-406.
Tomasello, Michael. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
________, Malinda Carpenter, Josep Call, Tanya Behne, and Henrike Moll. “Understanding and Sharing Intentions: The Origins of Cultural Cognition.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2005, 28:5, pp. 675-691.
Veblen, Thorstein. The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Modern Library, 1934.
Wilson, Edward O. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
Available Versions of this Item
The Mirror-Neuron Paradox: How Far is Sympathy from Compassion, Indulgence, and Adulation? (deposited 12. Jun 2007)
The Mirror-Neuron Paradox: How Far is Sympathy from Compassion, Indulgence, and Adulation? (deposited 17. Jun 2007)
- The Mirror-Neuron Paradox: How Far is Sympathy from Compassion, Indulgence, and Adulation? (deposited 18. Jun 2007) [Currently Displayed]
- The Mirror-Neuron Paradox: How Far is Sympathy from Compassion, Indulgence, and Adulation? (deposited 17. Jun 2007)