Islam, Asif (2012): Is There a Gender Bias in Crime Against Firms for Developing Economies?
Download (299kB) | Preview
The literature has typically found a positive relationship between crime rates and female headed households. Female headed households tend to indicate instability and vulnerability, and thus a positive relationship may not be surprising. This study explores the relationship between female owned firms and losses due to crime experienced by firms using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries. Although we do find a similar positive relationship between female owned firms and losses due to crime, the results may suggest that the reason may be a gender bias in the incidence of crime. We find similar results for female owned and managed firms and losses due to crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the relationship between crime and female ownership and management. The results are robust to various sensitivity checks.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Is There a Gender Bias in Crime Against Firms for Developing Economies?|
|Keywords:||Crime, Firms, Gender, Development|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General
K - Law and Economics > K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior > K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O50 - General
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender ; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Asif Islam|
|Date Deposited:||17. Feb 2012 11:03|
|Last Modified:||21. Feb 2013 08:29|
Alesina, Alberto, Arnand Devleeschauwer, William Easterly, Sergio Kurlat, and Romain Wacziarg. 2003. “Fractionalization”. Journal of Economic Growth 8(2), 155–194.
Amin, Mohammad. 2010. “Gender and firm-size: Evidence from Africa.” Economics Bulletin 30(1), 663-668
Amin, Mohammad. 2009. “Crime, Security and Firms in Latin America” (Short Note). Available at: http://works.bepress.com/mohammad_amin/11 (accessed October 31, 2011).
Barro, Robert and Jong-Wha Lee. 2010. “A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World 1950-2010.” NBER Working Paper No. 15902.
Becker, Gary. 1968. “Crime and punishment: an economic approach.” Journal of Political Economy 76, 169–217.
Demombynes, Gabriel, and Berk Ozler. 2005. “Crime and local inequality in South Africa.” Journal of Development Economics 76, 265-292.
Di Tella, Rafael, and Ernesto Schargrodsky. 2004. “Do police reduce crime? Estimates using the allocation of police forces after a terrorist attack.” The American Economic Review 94, 115–133.
Dutta, Mousumi, and Zakir Husain. 2009. “Determinants of crime rates: Crime Deterrence and Growth in post-liberalized India.” MPRA Paper No. 14478.
Fanjzylber, Pably, Daniel Lederman, and Norman Loayza. 2002. “Inequality and violent crime.” Journal of Law and Economics 45(1), 1–39.
Gaviria, Alejandro. 2002. “Assessing the effects of corruption and crime on firm performance: evidence from Latin America.” Emerging Markets Review (3), 245-268.
Glaeser, Edward L., Bruce Sacerdote. 1999. “Why is there more crime in cities.” Journal of Political Economy 107(6), 225-258.
Hammouya, Messaoud. 1999. “Statistics on public sector employment: methodology, structures and trends.” Working Papers SAP 2.84/WP.144, Sectoral Activities Programme. ILO. Geneva
Hopkins, Matt. 2002. “Crimes against Businesses: The Way Forward for Future Research.” British Journal of Criminology, 42(4): 782-797.
Kelly, Morgan. 2000. “Inequality and crime.” Review of Economics and Statistics 82 (4), 540– 554 (November).
Kovandzic, Tomislav V., and John J. Sloan. 2002. “Police levels and crime rates revisited - A county-level analysis from Florida (1980-1998).” Journal of Criminal Justice 30, 65-76.
Levitt, Steven D. 2004. “Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: four factors that explain the decline and six that do not.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18, 163–190.
Naidoo, Julian. 2006. “The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Crime in South Africa.” http://www.sarpn.org.za, date accessed on 31 October 2011.
Soares, Rodrigo R., 2004. “Development, crime and punishment: accounting for the international differences in crime rates.” Journal of Development Economics 73(1),155–184.