Pagiola, Stefano and Rios, Ana R. and Arcenas, Agustin (2007): Can the Poor Participate in Payments for Environmental Services?: Lessons from the Silvopastoral Project in Nicaragua. Forthcoming in: Environment and Development Economics
Download (227kB) | Preview
This paper uses data from a Payments for Environmental Services (PES) project being implemented in Nicaragua to examine the extent to which poorer households that are eligible to participate are in fact able to do so, an issue over which there has been considerable concern. The study site provides a strong test of the ability of poorer households to participate as it requires participants to make substantial and complex land use changes. The results show that poorer households are in fact able to participate—indeed, by some measures they participated to a greater extent than better-off households. Moreover, their participation was not limited to the simpler, least expensive options. Extremely poor households had a somewhat greater difficulty in participating, but even in their case the difference is solely a relative one. Transaction costs may be greater obstacles to the participation of poorer households than household-specific constraints.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Can the Poor Participate in Payments for Environmental Services?: Lessons from the Silvopastoral Project in Nicaragua|
|Keywords:||Payments for Environmental Services; PES; poverty; participation|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services ; Biodiversity Conservation ; Bioeconomics ; Industrial Ecology
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation
|Depositing User:||Stefano Pagiola|
|Date Deposited:||26. Jun 2007|
|Last Modified:||14. Feb 2013 19:43|
Alban, M. and S. Wunder (2005), ‘Decentralized payments for environmental services: Comparing the cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador’, paper presented at the ZEF-CIFOR workshop: Payments for environmental services: Methods and design in developing and developed countries, Titisee, Germany, June 15-18, 2005. Bandiera, O. (2004), ‘Land tenure, incentives and the choice of techniques: Evidence from Nicaragua’, London: LSE. Belsley, D. A. (1991), Conditioning Diagnostics, Collinearity and Weak Data in Regression, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Belsley, D. A., E. Kuh, and R. E. Welsch (1980), Regression Diagnostics: Indentifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Bruijnzeel, L. A. (2004), ‘Hydrological functions of moist tropical forests: Not seeing the soil for the trees?’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environments, 104: 185-228. CGIAR (1997), ‘Report of the study on CGIAR research priorities for marginal lands’, Rome: CGIAR and FAO. CIPAV (2003), Usos de la Tierra en Fincas Ganaderas: Guía para el Pago de Servicios Ambientales en el Proyecto Enfoques Silvopastoriles Integrados para el Manejo de Ecosistemas, Cali: Fundación CIPAV (in Spanish). Dagang, A. B. K. and P. K. R. Nair (2003), ‘Silvopastoral research and adoption in Central America: Recent findings and recommendations for future directions’, Agroforestry Systems 59: 149–155. de Janvry, A. and E. Sadoulet (2000), ‘Rural poverty in Latin America: Determinants and exit paths’, Food Policy 25: 389-409. Dennis, P., L. Shellard, and R. Agnew (1996), ‘Shifts in arthropod species assemblages in relation to silvopastoral establishment in upland pastures’, Agroforestry Forum 7: 14-21. Díaz, O., L. A. Dimas, M. García, D. Herrador, and V. E. Méndez (2002), ‘Pago por servicios ambientales en El Salvador: Oportunidades y riesgos para pequeños agricultores y comunidades rurales’, San Salvador: PRISMA (in Spanish). Downing, T. E., H. A. Pearson, and C. Garcia-Downing, eds, (1992), Development or Destruction: The Conversion of Tropical Forest to Pasture in Latin America, Boulder: Westview Press. Echevarría, M. (2002a), ‘Financing watershed conservation: The FONAG water fund in Quito, Ecuador’, in S. Pagiola, J. Bishop, and N. Landell-Mills, (eds.), Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development, London: Earthscan, pp. 91-101. Echevarría, M. (2002b), ‘Water user associations in the Cauca valley: A voluntary mechanism to promote upstream-downstream cooperation in the protection of rural watersheds’, Land-Water Linkages in Rural Watersheds Case Study Series, Rome: FAO. Ervin, C. A. and D. E. Ervin (1982), ‘Factors affecting the use of soil conservation practices: Hypothesis, evidence, and policy implications’, Land Economics 58: 278-292. Feder, G., R. E. Just, and D. Zilberman (1985), ‘Adoption of agricultural innovations in developing countries: A survey’, Economic Development and Cultural Change 33: 255-295. Ferraro, P. J. and S. K. Pattanayak (2006), ‘Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments’, PLoS Biology, 4: 482-488. Fisher, M. J., I. M. Rao. M. A. Ayarza, C. E. Lascano, J. I. Sanz, R. J. Thomas, and R. R. Vera (1994), ‘Carbon Storage by Introduced Deep-rooted Grasses in the South American Savannas’, Nature 371: 236-238. Gobbi, J. (2002), ‘Enfoques silvopastoriles integrados para el manejo de ecosistemas en Colombia, Costa Rica y Nicaragua: Análisis económico-financiero ex-ante de la inversión en los SSP propuestos para cada país’, Turrialba, Costa Rica: CATIE (in Spanish). Greene, W. H. (2000), Econometric Analysis, 4th ed., Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Grieg-Gran, M., I. Porras, and S. Wunder (2005), ‘How can market mechanisms for forest environmental services help the poor? Preliminary lessons from Latin America’, World Development 33: 1511-1527. Harvey, C. and W. Haber (1999), ‘Remnant trees and the conservation of biodiversity in Costa Rican pastures’, Agroforestry Systems 44: 37-68. Heath, J., and H. Binswanger (1996), ‘Natural resource degradation effects of poverty and population growth are largely policy-induced: The case of Colombia’, Environment and Development Economics 1: 65-84. Kaimowitz, D. (1996), ‘Livestock and Deforestation in Central America in the 1980s and 1990s: A Policy Perspective’, Bogor: CIFOR. Kerr, J. (2002). ‘Watershed development, environmental services, and poverty alleviation in India’, World Development 30: 1387-1400. Landell-Mills, N. and I. Porras (2002), Silver Bullet or Fools’ Gold? A Global Review of Markets for Forest Environmental Services and Their Impact on the Poor, London: IIED. López, R. and A. Valdés (2000), Rural poverty in Latin America, New York: St. Martin's Press. Mercer, D. E. (2004). ‘Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review’, Agroforestry Systems 61: 311–328. Miranda, M., I. T. Porras, and M. L. Moreno (2003), ‘The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed’, Markets for Environmental Services Paper No.1, London: IIED. Mittelhammer, R. C., G. G. Judge, and D. J. Miller (2000), Econometric Foundations, New York: Cambridge University Press. Muñoz, C., A. Guevara, J. M. Bulás, J. M. Torres, and J. Braña (2006), ‘Los pagos por los servicios hidrológicos del bosque en México’, in S. Pagiola, J. Bishop, and N. Landell-Mills, (eds.), La Venta de Servicios Ambientales Forestales, 2nd edition, México: Instituto Nacional de Ecología, pp. 165-206 (in Spanish). Nelson, A. and K. Chomitz (2002), ‘The forest-hydrology-poverty nexus in Central America: An heuristic analysis’, Washington: World Bank. Nkonya, E., T. Schroeder, and D. Norman (1997), ‘Factors affecting adoption of improved maize seed and fertiliser in Northern Tanzania’, Journal of Agricultural Economics 48: 1-12. Nowak,P. J. (1987), ‘The adoption of agricultural conservation technologies: Economic and diffusion explanations’, Rural Sociology 52: 208-220. Ortiz Malavasi, R., L.F. Sage Mora, and C. Borge Carvajal (2002), ‘Impacto del Programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales en Costa Rica como medio de reducción de pobreza en los medios rurales’, San José: RUTA. Pagiola, S. (2005), ‘Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica’, paper presented at the ZEF-CIFOR workshop: Payments for environmental services:Methods and design in developing and developed countries, Titisee, Germany, June 15-18, 2005. Pagiola, S., P. Agostini, J. Gobbi, C. de Haan, M. Ibrahim, E. Murgueitio, E. Ramírez, M. Rosales, and J. P. Ruíz (2004), ‘Paying for biodiversity conservation services in agricultural landscapes’, Environment Department Paper No.96, Washington: World Bank. Pagiola, S., A. Arcenas, and G. Platais (2005), ‘Can payments for environmental services help reduce poverty? An exploration of the issues and the evidence to date from Latin America’, World Development 33: 237-253. Pagiola, S., and A. Colom (2006), ‘Will payments for watershed services help reduce poverty? Evidence from Guatemala’, Washington: World Bank. Pagiola, S., N. Landell-Mills, and J. Bishop (2002), ‘Making market-based mechanisms work for forests and people’, in S. Pagiola, J. Bishop, and N. Landell-Mills, (eds.), Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development, London: Earthscan, 261-289. Pagiola, S., and G. Platais, (forthcoming), Payments for environmental services: From theory to practice, Washington: World Bank. Pagiola, S., E. Ramírez, J. Gobbi, C. de Haan, M. Ibrahim, E. Murgueitio, and J. P. Ruíz (in review), ‘Paying for the environmental services of silvopastoral practices in Nicaragua’, Ecological Economics, Special Issue on Ecosystem Services and Agriculture, edited by S. M. Swinton, F. Lupi, S. H. Hamilton, and G. P. Robertson. Pattanayak, S. K., D. E. Mercer, E. Sills, and J.-C Yang (2003), ‘Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies’, Agroforestry Systems 57: 173-186. Pfaff, A., S. Kerr, F. Hughes, S. Liu, G. Sanchez, D. Schimel, J. Tosi, and V. Watson (2000), ‘The Kyoto Protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM’, Ecological Economics 35: 203-221. Rajasekharan, P. and S. Veeraputhran (2002), ‘Adoption of intercropping in rubber smallholdings in Kerala, India: A tobit analysis’, Agroforestry Systems 56: 1-11. Ravallion, M., (1992) ‘Poverty comparisons : A guide to concepts and methods’, LSMS Working Paper No.LSM 88, Washington: World Bank. Thacher, T., D. R. Lee, and J. W. Schelhas (1997), ‘Farmer participation in reforestation incentive programs in Costa Rica’, Agroforestry Systems 35: 269-289. White, H. (1980), ‘A heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimator and a direct test for heteroskedasticity’, Econometrica 48: 817-838. White, D., F. Holmann, S. Fuijsaka, K. Reategui, and C. Lascano (2001), ‘Will intensifying pasture management in latin america protect forests? – Or is it the other way round?” In A. Angelsen and D. Kaimowitz,(eds.), Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation, Oxford: CAB International. World Bank (2003), ‘Nicaragua reporte de pobreza: Aumentando el bienestar y reduciendo la vulnerabilidad’, Report No.26128-NI, Washington: World Bank. Wunder, S. (2005), ‘Payments for environmental services: Some nuts and bolts’, CIFOR Occasional Paper No.42, Bogor: CIFOR. Zbinden, S. and D.R. Lee (2005), ‘Institutional arrangements for rural poverty reduction and resource conservation’, World Development 33: 255-272.