Douillet, Mathilde (2012): Trade policies and agricultural exports of Sub-Saharan African countries: Some stylized facts and perspectives.
Download (1MB) | Preview
It has long been consensual that limited market demand within poor African countries have hampered economic development of Sub-Saharan Africa and that countries therefore needed to rely on exports markets to spur economic growth. But despite benefiting from preferential agreements, Sub-Saharan African countries have been marginalized from global trade. Indicators of the exports of Sub-Saharan African countries are constructed to reflect their characteristics. Existing trade negotiating options are examined in the current context of agricultural markets. It appears that prospects at the regional level arise as well as at the global level, especially when looking at the opportunities from a policy coherence for development perspective. Regional prospects are even more acute in light of the global economic crisis affecting traditional trade partners.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Trade policies and agricultural exports of Sub-Saharan African countries: Some stylized facts and perspectives|
|Keywords:||Africa, Trade policy, Agriculture|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O55 - Africa
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F13 - Trade Policy ; International Trade Organizations
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade
|Depositing User:||Mathilde Douillet|
|Date Deposited:||30. Aug 2012 11:27|
|Last Modified:||23. Aug 2015 03:54|
ANANIA G. 2009.” EU economic partnership agreements and WTO negotiations. A quantitative assessment of trade preference granting and erosion in the banana market”. Food Policy 35 (2010) 140–153
ANDERSON K. and W. MARTIN (eds),Trade reform and the Doha Development Agenda Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
ANDERSON K. and W MASTERS. 2009. Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa. Washington DC: The World Bank.
BALDWIN R. 2008. Big-think regionalism: a critical survey. Working paper 14056, http://www.nber.org/papers/w14056.
BALDWIN R., A. VENABLES, 1995. "Regional economic integration," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1597-1644 Elsevier.
BARRETT C.B. 2008. Smallholder Market Participation: Concepts and Evidence from Eastern and Southern Africa. Food Policy 33(4), 299-317.
BERISHA-KRASNIQI V., A. BOUËT. and S. MEVEL. 2008. Economic partnership agreements between the European Union and African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries: What is at stake for Senegal, IFPRI discussion papers 765. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute
BERISHA-KRASNIQI V., A. BOUËT. D. LABORDE and S. MEVEL. 2008. The Development Promise: Can the Doha Development Agenda Deliver for Least-Developed Countries? IFPRI Briefing note No. 14. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute
BEAVOGUI M. 2005. Coherence of international trade liberalization policy with the objective of rural poverty reduction: listening to the views of the rural people in Sub-Saharan Africa. Paper presented at the Global Forum on agriculture “Policy Coherence for Development” 30 November-1 December, Paris, France.
BHAGWATI J. N. 1991. “The World Trading System at Risk.” Harvester Wheatsheaf: Hemel Hempstead.
BHAGWATI J., A. LEHMAN and A. PANAGARIYA. 1996. “Preferential Trading Areas and Multilateralism: Strangers, Friends or Foes?” In Bhagwati and Panagariya (eds) The Economics of Preferential Trade Agreements. Washington DC: AEI Press.
BOUËT, A. 2008. The Expected Benefits from Trade Liberalization—Opening the Black Box of Global Trade Modeling. IFPRI Food Policy Review 8. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
BOUËT A., Y. DECREUX, L. FONTAGNÉ, S. JEAN and D. LABORDE. 2008. “Assessing Applied Protection across the World”, Review of International Economics, 16(5): 850-863.
BOUET A., and D. LABORDE. 2009. Market Access versus Domestic Support: Assessing the relative impacts on developing countries' agriculture, in A. Elbehri, and A. Sarris, eds., Non-Distorting Farm Support to Enhance Global Food Production, Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
BOUËT A., FONTAGNÉ L., and S. JEAN. 2006. “Is Erosion of Preferences a Serious Concern? ”, in Agricultural K. Anderson and W. Martin (eds) Trade reform and the Doha Development Agenda, Chapter 6: 161-192. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press and The World Bank.
BOUËT A., J.-C. BUREAU, Y. DECREUX and S. JEAN. 2005. “Multilateral Agricultural Trade Liberalization: the Contrasting Fortunes of Developing Countries”, The World Economy, 28(9): 1329-1354.
BOUËT A., LABORDE DEBUCQUET D., DIENESCH E., and K. ELLIOTT. 2010. The Costs and Benefits of Duty-Free, Quota-Free Market Access for Poors Countries: Who and What Matters?, CATT WP No. 11.
BOUET, A., and D. LABORDE. 2011. Duty Free, a Round for Free and the Least-Developed Countries, in W. Martin and A. Mattoo, (eds.) Unfinished business? The WTO's Doha Agenda, Washington DC: World Bank and Centre for Economic Policy Research, T and T Production Limited, London.
BOUËT, A., MISHRA S. and D. ROY. 2008. Does Africa Trade Less than It Should, and If So, Why? The Role of Market Access and Domestic Factors. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00770. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
BOURGUIGNON F, BUSSOLO M, and J. COCKBURN. 2010. “Macro-Micro Analytics: Background, Motivation, Advantages and Remaining Challenges”, Guest Editorial, International Journal of Microsimulation, 3(1) 1-7.
BOYSEN O. and A. MATTHEWS. 2009. The economic partnership agreement between Uganda and the EU: trade and poverty impacts. Institute for International Integration Studies. Discussion paper No307
BRENTON, P., and M. MANCHIN. 2003. “Making EU Trade Agreements Work: The Role of Rules of Origin”, The World Economy, 26(5).
Cali M. and D. W. te Velde. 2006. The Potential Effects of Economic Partnership Agreements: What Quantitative Models Say.ODI Briefing Paper 5.
CANDAU, F., and S. JEAN, 2005. What are EU Trade Preferences worth for Sub-Saharan Africa and Other Developing Countries?, CEPII Working Papers, No 2005-19.
CARRERE, C., and J. DE MELO. 2010. “The Doha Round and Market Access for least developed countries: Scenarios for the EU and US Markets”, Journal of World Trade, 44(1): 251-290.
CHEMINGUI M.A., and M. H. BCHIR. 2009, Does Multilateral Trade LIberalization Matters for poverty reduction in Africa ? IPAN draft document GTAP 2010 conference paper
COLLIER, P., and A. J. VENABLES. 2007. "Rethinking Trade Preferences: How Africa Can Diversify its Exports," CEPR Discussion Papers 6262, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
DE JANVRY A., and E. SADOULET. 1992. “Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Low Income Countries: A General Equilibrium- Multimarket Approach”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 74(2): 268-280.
DE JANVRY, A., M. FAFCHAMPS and E. SADOULET. 1991. “Peasant Behavior with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained”, The Economic Journal, vol. 101, pp. 1400-1417.
DE MARIA F., S. DROGUE and A. MATTHEWS. 2008. Agro-food preferences in the EU’s GSP scheme: an analysis of changes between 2004 and 2006. TRADEAG. Working paper 08/3
De MELO J., and O. CADOT. 2008. Why OECD Countries Should Reform their Rules of Origin. World Bank Research Observer.
DECREUX Y., and L. FONTAGNÉ. 2009. Economic Impact of potential outcome of the DDA. CEPII Research Report, N°2009-01.
DEVEZE J.C. (Ed). 2008. Défis agricoles africains. Paris: Karthala-Agence Francaise de Développement.
DIAO X, P. DOROSH, S. M. RAHMAN, S. MEIJER, M. ROSEGRANT, Y. YANOMA and W. LI. 2003. Market opportunities for African agriculture: an examination of demand-side constraints on agricultural growth. IFPRI DSG Working Paper n°1. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
DISDIER, A.-C., FONTAGNE L. and M. MIMOUNI. 2007. “The impact of regulations on agricultural trade: evidence from SPS and TBTs Agreements”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90(2): 336-350.
DJANKOV S., FREUND C. and C. PHAM. 2010. Trading on Time. The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(1): 166-173.
DOUILLET M. 2011. Which trade integration scheme can best help SSA develop and export more processed agricultural goods? IFPRI Discussion Paper 1119. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
ELLIOTT K. A., 2010, Open Markets for the Poorest Countries: Trade Preferences That Work, Final Report of the CGD Working Group on Global Trade Preference Reform
ESTEVADEORDAL A. AND K. SUOMINEN. 2003. “Rules of Origin in FTAs in Europe and in the Americas: Issues and Implications for the EU-Mercosur Inter-Regional Association Agreement.” Paper prepared for the Chaire Mercosur (Sciences Po) Working Group on EU-Mercosur Negotiations.
EVENETT S. 2008. The EU Generalised System of Preferences: An Assessment of the Evidential base”, CEPR working paper.
FAO(Food and Agricultural Organization). 2007. Towards an African common market for agricultural products. A paper presented to the workshop on World Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change and Bio-energy. Rome, 3-5 June 2008.
FONTAGNE L., C. MITARITONNA, and D. LABORDE. 2011. “An Impact Study of the Economic Partnership Agreements in the Six ACP Regions”, Journal of African Economies, 20(2): 179-216
FREUND C. 2000. “Different Paths to Free Trade: The Gains from Regionalism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 52 (2000b), 359-376.
FREUND C. and N. ROCHA. 2011. What constrains Africa’s exports? World Bank. Research working paper 5184. Washington DC: The World Bank.
GASIOREK M., LOPEZ GONZALEZ J., HOLMES P., MENDEZ PARRA M., ROLLO J., WANG Z., MALISZEWSKA M., PACZYNSKI, W., CIRERA X., WILLENBOCKEL D., ROBINSON S. DAWAR K., FOLIANO F., and M. OLARREAGA. 2009. Mid-term Evaluation of the EU’s Generalised System of Preferences. CARIS. Commissioned and financed by the Commission of the European Communities.
FOROUTAN F. and L. PRITCHETT. 1993. “Intra-sub-Saharan African trade: is it too little?” Journal of African Economies 2 (1): 74–105.
GEBOYE DESTA M., 2010, "EU Sanitary Standards and Sub-Saharan African Agricultural Exports: A Case Study of the Livestock Sector in East Africa" The Law and Development Review 1.1 (2010): 97.
GÉRARD F., PIKETTY M. G., 2008, Trade Liberalization on Poverty: Sensitivity of Results to Factors Mobility Among Sectors Working Paper Moisa n° 5/2008
GILLSON, I. 2011. Non-Tariff Barriers to Sub-Saharan African Trade in Food Staples: Opening Regional Markets to Promote Food Security and Price Stabilization; Washington: The World Bank.
GUERIN S. S., KINGAH S., GERSTETTER C. and J. KIRSCHEY. 2011. An assessment of the balancing of EU development objectives with other policies and priorities. Report requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Development. Brussels: European Parliament.
GOURDON J. and O. CADOT. 2011. The Price-Raising Effects of Non-Tariff Measures inAfrica.” Washington, DC: World Bank.
HAGGBLADE S. and E. GABRE-MADHIN. 2010. In Haggblade, S., and P. Hazell. (Eds) 2010. Successes in African Agriculture: Lessons for the Future. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute and Johns Hopkins University Press.
HERTEL T. and R. KEENEY. 2009. The poverty impacts of global commodity trade liberalization. Agricultural Distorsion Working Paper. Washington DC: The World Bank.
HERTEL T., R. KEENEY, IVANIC, and WINTERS. 2006. Distributional Effects of WTO Agricultural Reforms in Rich and Poor Countries, GTAP Working Paper N°33
HERTEL, KEENEY, IVANIC, and WINTERS, 2008, Why Isn’t the Doha Development Agenda More Poverty Friendly?, GTAP Working Paper No. 37
IANCHOVICHINA, E., MATTOO, A., and M. OLARREAGA. 2001. Unrestricted market access for Sub-Saharan Africa - How much is it worth and who pays?, Volume 1 World Bank Group Research working paper ; no. WPS 2595
IFC (International Finance Corporation). 2009. Taxation as State-Building Reforming Tax Systems for Political Stability and Sustainable Economic Growth A Practitioner’s Guide, FIAS/The World Bank Group in collaboration with DFID, Washington, D.C.:International Finance Corporation.
IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) and IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development). 2009. Land grab or development opportunity? Agricultural investment and international land deals in Africa, London/Rome: IIED FAO and IFAD.
IMBS J. and R. WACZIARG. 2003. "Stages of Diversification," American Economic Review, 93(1): 63-86.
IMF (International Monetary Fund) and WORLD BANK. 2012. Global Monitoring Report 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition and the Millenium Development Goals. Washington DC: The International Monetary Fund and The World Bank. ITC (International Trade Center) 2010. Market Access, Transparency and Fairness in Global Trade: Export Impact For Good 2010. Geneva: ITC.
Karingi S. , N. Oulmane, R. Lang, M. Sadni Jallab M. And R. Perez. 2005. Assessment of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the ECOWAS countries and the European Union, MPRA Paper 13292, University Library of Munich, Germany.
KECK and PIERMARTINI . 2005. The Economic Impact of EPAs in SADC Countries, WTO Economic Research and Statistics Division Staff Working Paper.
KORINEK J. and M. MELATOS . 2009. “Trade Impacts of Selected Regional Trade Agreements in Agriculture”, OECD Trade Policy Working Papers No. 87. Paris: OECD Publishing.
KOWALSKI P. and B. SHERPERD. 2006. "South-South Trade in Goods." OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 40, October 16.
KRISHNA P. 1998. “Regionalism and Multilateralism: A Political Economy Approach,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(1):227-51.
KRUGMAN P. 1991. “Is Bilateralism Bad?” in E. Helpman and A. Razin (eds.), International Trade and Trade Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press. KRUGMAN P. and M. OBSTFELD. 2009. International Economics: Theory and Policy (Boston: Addison Wesley), Eighth edition, 2009.
KUHLMANN K. 2010. Beyond the Economic Partnership Agreements: A New U.S.-European Approac to Trade and Development in sub-Saharan Africa. In Jones E. and D. F. Marti, Updating Economic Partnership Agreements to Today’s Global Challenges essays on the future of economic partnership agreements. Washington DC: German Marshall Fund.
LAMY P. 2011.“Doha Round can help lift Africa’s agriculture” Opening Speech at the “Harnessing Agriculture for Development through Trade” CUTS conference, 21 February 2011, Geneva Switzerland.
LAMY P. 2012. “Use multilateral trade negotiations and the WTO system as impetus for greater regional integration” speech at the African Union summit on 29 January 2012 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
LESSER C. and E. MOISE-LEEMAN. 2009. Informal cross-border trade and trade facilitation reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 86. Manchin M. 2006. 2006. "Preference Utilization and Tariff Reduction in EU Imports from ACP Countries," The World Economy, 29(9): 1243-1266, 09.
MATTHEWS A. 2003. Regional Integration and Food Security in Developing Countries. Training Materials for Agricultural Planning vol. 45.
MAUR J-C. 2008. Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: A Primer. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4464.
MEMEDOVIC O. and L. IAPADRE. 2009. Structural Change in the World Economy: Main Features and Trends. Working Paper 24. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
MINOT N. 2011. Transmission of World Food Price Changes to Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01059. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
MOLD A. 2005. Non-Tariff barriers. Their prevalence and relevance for African Countries, African Trade Policy Centre, Work in Progress 25, Addis-Abbaba, Uited Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
MORRISSEY O. 2007. What type of WTO-compatible trade policies are appropriate for different stages of development ? In J. Morrison and A. Sarris. WTO rules for agriculture compatible with development. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
MORRISSEY O. and A. MOLD. 2006. Explaining Africa’s Export Performance – Taking a New Look. Paper presented at the 7th GTAP conference. Addid Abeba.
NG F. and A. YEATS. 2002. What Can Africa Expect from Its Traditional Exports? Africa Region Working Paper Series, no. 26. Washington, DC: WORLD BANK.
NIN-PRATT A., X.DIAO and Y. BAHTA. 2008. Assessing Potential Welfare Impacts on Agriculture of a Regional FreeTrade Agreement in Southern Africa, ReSAKSS Working Paper 15.
NOUVE K. and J. STAATZ 2003. “The Food Security Debate in West Africa Following the WTO Agreements on Agriculture”. Staff Paper no. 2003-05, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
NUETAH J.A., XIN X., and T. ZUO, Does Trade liberalization Make the poor better off ? Sub-Saharan Africa and the Doha Agricultural Trade reform. GTAP conference paper 2010
OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation for Development) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2011. Agricultural Outlook 2011-2020. Paris and Rome: Organization of Economic Cooperation for Development and Food and Agriculture Organization.
OZDEN, C. and E REINHARDT. 2005. "The perversity of preferences: GSP and developing country trade policies, 1976-2000," Journal of Development Economics, 78(1): 1-21.
PANAGARIYA A. 2005. “Agricultural liberalization and the least developed countries: six fallacies”. World Economy, 28: 1277–1299.
PLATTEAU J.-P. 1996. “Physical Infrastructure as a constraint on Agricultural growth : the case of Sub-Saharan Africa” Oxford Development Studies, 24(3): 189-219.
PORTO CHAUVIN and OLARREAGA. 2011. Supply Chains in Export Agriculture, Competition, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: CEPR for the World Bank.
POULTON, C., G. TYLER, P. HAZELL, A. DORWARD, J. KYDD, and M. STOCKBRIDGE. 2009. All-Africa Review of Experiences with Commercial Agriculture Lessons from Success and Failure. Background Paper for the Competitive Commercial Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (CCAA) Study.
RODRIK D. 1998. “Trade Policy and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa.”NBER Working Paper #6562.
RODRIK D., ed. 2003. In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Economic Growth. Pinceton: Princeton University Press.
RUGWABIZA V. 2012. “Africa should trade more with Africa to secure future growth”. Speech at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa on 12 April 2012.
SACHS J. and A. WARNER. 1997. Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies, Harvard Institute for International Development.
SCHIFF M. and A. WINTERS. 2003. Regional integration and development. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
SECK A., CISSOKHO L., MAKPAYO K. and J. HAUGHTON. 2010. How Important Are Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade within ECOWAS? Suffolk Research Working Paper N° 2010-3.Boston: Suffolk University.
STEVENS C., K. BIRD, J. KEANE, J. KENNAN, D.W. TE VELDE and K. HIGGINS. 2011. The poverty impact of the proposed graduation threshold in the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) trade scheme. ODI
STURGEON T. J. and O. MEMEDOVIC, 2010. “Looking for Global Value Chains in Trade Statistics: Mapping Structural Change and Compressed Development in the World Economy,” UNIDO.
SUBRAMANIAN A. and N. TAMIRISA. 2001. Africa’s trade revisited. IMF working paper.
SUBRAMANIAN A. and ROY D. 2003. Who can explan the Mauritian miracle: Meade, Romer, Sachs or Rodrik? IMF working paper.
SUMMERS L. 1991. Regionalism and the World Trading System, Symposium Sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Policy Implications of Trade and Currency Zones.
TEKERE M. and D. NDELA. 2002. Final Report. Study of the Compatibility of Trade Policies in the Context of Current Regional Economic Integration Processes: The Case of SADC. Harare: Trade and Development Studies Centre.
TE VELDE, D.W. 2006. Regional Integration and Poverty. Ashgate Publishing. Forthcoming.
VELDE D. W. te and MEYN M. 2008. Regional Integration in African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries. A review of the literature. Report for the EC’s DG Development.
THORBECKE E. 2009. The Anatomy of Growth and Development in Sub Saharan Africa. Framework Paper Prepared for the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Collaborative Project on Growth and Poverty to be presented at the Conference in Accra, April 20-22, 2009.
TREBILCOCK M.J. and R. HOWSE. 2005. The regulation of international trade. 3rd edition. Oxon: Routledge.
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development).2010. Trade-related capacity building for academia in African least developed countries: development of human resources and policy support.
UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa). 2006. Assessing Regional Integration in Africa II: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa) and AUC (African Union Committee). 2009. Economic Report on Africa 2009. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa). 2010. Assessing Regional Integration in Africa IV: Enhancing Intra-African Trade. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa) and AUC (African Union Committee). 2012. Economic Report on Africa 2012. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
VAN BERKUM S. 2009. Tariff escalation and EU agricultural imports: an assessment of selected products. Report 2009-109. The Hague: LEI Wageningen UR.
VENABLES A. J. 2003. “Winners and Losers from Regional Integration Agreements.” Economic Journal, 113(490):747-61.
VINER J. 1950. The customs union issue. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
VLAHANTONI-TIKOF M. 2005. Technical assistance to support ACP country delegations in Geneva on the Post-July Framework Process (Focal Points 2)
VORLEY B., M. LUNDY and J. MACGREGOR. 2009. “Business models that are inclusive of small farmer”. In Da Siva C. D. Baker, A. W. Shepherd, C. Jenane and S. Miranda-da-cruz (Ed). Agro-industries for development.Rome: CAB International and FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization.
WILKINSON, J. and R. ROCHA. 2009. Agro-industry trends, patterns and development impacts. In C. da Silva, D. Baker, A.W. Shepherd, C. Jenane, S. Miranda-da-Cruz (eds.), Agroindustries for Development, Wallingford, UK: CABI for FAO and UNIDO, pp. 46-91.
WOLF S. 2000. From Preferences to Reciprocity: General Equilibrium Effects of a Free Trade Area between the EU and the UEMOA, Paper presented at the Third Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, June 27-30 2000.
WORLD BANK. 2000. Can Africa claim the 21st century?. Washington DC: The World Bank.
WORLD BANK. 2009. Awakening Africa’s sleeping giant: Prospects for commercial agriculture in the Guinea Savannah zone and beyond. Agriculture and Rural Development Unit Sustainable Development Network. Africa Regional Office. Washington DC: The World Bank.
WORLD BANK and IFC (International Financial Corporation).2011. Doing Business 2011. Wahshington DC: The World Bank.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION. 2009a. World Trade Policy Review: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. Geneva: World Trade Organization.
WORLT TRADE ORGANIZATION. 2009b. World Trade Policy Review: Niger and Senegal. Geneva: World Trade Organization.
WORLT TRADE ORGANIZATION. 2011. World Trade Policy Review: Nigeria. Geneva: World Trade Organization.
YUMKELLA K. K., KORMAWA P. M., ROEPSTORFF T. M., and A. M. HAWKINS (Eds). 2011. Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.