Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros and Metaxas, Theodore (2011): EU and US security policy from the cold war era to the 21st century: the institutional evolution of cfsp and the factors that determine the American military supremacy.
Download (444kB) | Preview
This article aims to clarify the main parameters that define security policy in Europe and the United States. A historical review on the principal economic, political and military agreements in these two dipoles of power is presented from the dawn of Cold War to nowadays. We also examine the institutional integration of European defense strategy from the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 to nowadays, and the crucial effects of the 11/9/2001 terroristic attack on US security policy implementation. A comparative analysis between EU and US defense capabilities is displayed mainly through the issue of their defense outlays from which we try to explain US military and geopolitical supremacy in comparison to the defense weaknesses of their European allies. The study also raises questions about the possible dangers the USA might face through their attempts to maintain their global hegemony even further than 2025/30. We conclude that the European security policy, which was strongly motivated via economic integration during Cold War era, is highly characterized by structural inefficiencies and the unwillingness of European US allies to spend more about their defense by acting as NATO free-riders, which entails the reduction of its effectiveness comparing to US defense strategy.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||EU and US security policy from the cold war era to the 21st century: the institutional evolution of cfsp and the factors that determine the American military supremacy|
|Keywords:||Security Policy, USA, EU, American military supremacy|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy > F52 - National Security ; Economic Nationalism
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H56 - National Security and War
H - Public Economics > H7 - State and Local Government ; Intergovernmental Relations > H76 - State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
|Depositing User:||THEODORE METAXAS|
|Date Deposited:||03. Sep 2012 13:49|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 00:37|
Robert D. Schulzinger, U.S Diplomacy Since 1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 199-200.
Robert E. Hunter, The European Security and Defense Policy: NATO's Companion or Competitor? (Santa Monica: RAND Europe, National Defense Research Institute, 2000), 7-9.
Jomana Amara, “NATO Defense Expenditures: Common Goals or Diverging Interests? A Structural Analysis,” Defense And Peace Economics 19, no.6 (December 2008): 450
Seth G. Jones, “The European Union and the Security Dilemma,” Security Studies, 12, no. 3 (spring 2003): 115.
Berthold Rittberger and Iris Glockner, “The ECSC Treaty,” University of Mannheim, 17 March 2010, 1
Barry Eichengreen and Andrea Boltho, “The Economic Impact of European Integration,” Center for Economic Policy Research, Discussion Paper no. 6820 (May 2008): 5-9.
Geoffrey Owen, “Britain and the European Coal and Steel Community,” paper presented at Terni Conference on the European Coal and Steel Community, May 16-17, 2002.
Michael Creswell, “Between the Bear and the Phoenix: The United States and the European Defense Community 1950-54,” Security Studies 11, no. 4 (summer 2002): 90.
Thomas G. Patterson, On Every Front: The Making and Unmaking of the Cold War (New Work: W. W. Norton, 1992), 194.
Mike Artis and Frederick Nilson, The Economics of the European Union, Policy and Analysis, Third Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 5-14.
Andreas Herberg-Rothe, Clausewitz’s Puzzle, The Political Theory of War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 139-144.
Andrew Moravcsik, “De Gaulle and European Integration: Ηistorical Revision and Social Science Theory,” Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series 8.5 (May 1998): 41-46.
Seth G. Jones, “The European Union and the Security Dilemma,ˮ Security Studies 12, no. 3 (Spring 2003): 131-4.
Hubert Van Tuyll and Jurgen Brauer, “Colonizing Military History: A Millennial View on the Economics of War,ˮ Defense And Peace Economics, Special Issue (2002): 23-27.
Artis and Nilson, The Economics of the European Union, 297-230.
Jones, “The European Union and the Security Dilemma,ˮ 135-138.
Zoltan Barany, “NATO Expansion, Round Two: Making Matters Worse,ˮ Security Studies 11, no. 3 (spring 2002): 126.
Stephanie S. Anderson and Thomas R. Seitz, “European Security and Defense Policy Demystified, Nation-Building and Identity in the European Union,ˮ Armed Forces and Society 33, (October 2006): 27-28.
Nicole Alecu de Flers, “The provisions on CFSP and CSDP in the Lisbon Reform Treaty: Stumbling Blocks or Milestones?” Institute for European Integration Research (13-14 July 2008): 3-5.
Galia Press-Barnathan, “Managing the Hegemon: NATO under Unipolarity,” Security Studies 15, no. 2 (April–June 2006): 291.
See Jonathan Clarke, “The Eurocorps: A Fresh Start in Europe” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing, no. 21 (December 1992): 2-6, in http://www.cato.org/pubs/fpbriefs/fpb021.pdf
Artis and Nilson, The Economics of the European Union, 301-302.
Press-Barnathan, “Managing the Hegemon”: 295. See also Gustav Lindstrom, “Enter the EU Battlegroups,” Institute for Security Studies, Chaillot Paper no. 97 (February 2007): 9-14.
Barry R. Posen, “European Union Security and Defense Policy: Response to Unipolarity?,” Security Studies, 15, no. 2 (April–June 2006), 176.
Hunter, The European Security and Defense Policy, 57.
Kristin Archick and Paul Gallis, “NATO and the European Union,” Congressional Research Service (January 4, 2005): 13-15.
Frank Slijper, “The emerging EU Military-Industrial Complex Arms Industry Lobbying in Brussels,” Transnational Institute, no. 2005/1 (May 2005): 5-19.
Julian Lindley-French, “Headline Goal 2010 and the Concept of the EU battle groups: An Assessment of the Build-up of a European Defense Capability,” Cicero Foundation (8 – 9 December 2005): 2-7.
Nicole Alecu de Flers, “The provisions on CFSP and CSDP,” 11-14.
Robert J. Art, “The United States, The Balance of Power, and World War II: Was Spykman Right?” Security Studies 14, no. 3 (July–September 2005): 368-373.
Mark Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace, the Making of the European Settlement 1945-1963 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 96.
Kevin Narizny, “Rational Idealism: The Political Economy of Internationalism in the United States and Great Britain, 1870-1945,” Security Studies 12, no. 3 (spring 2003): 3-4.
Seth Weinberger, “Institutional Signalling and the Origins of the Cold War,” Security Studies 12, no.4 (Summer 2003): 95-96.
Michael Cox, “From the Truman Doctrine to the Second Superpower Détente: The Rise and the Fall of the Cold War,ˮ Journal of Peace Research 27, no. 1 (February 1990): 25-31.
Benjamin O. Fordham, “Domestic Politics, International Pressure and the Allocation of American Cold War Military Spending,ˮ Journal of Politics 64, no. 1 (February 2002): 66-67.
Fanny Coulomb and Jacques Fontanel, “Disarmament: A Century of Economic Thought,ˮ Defense And Peace Economics, Special Issue (March 2002): 68-69.
De Long and Eichengreen, “The Marshall Plan,ˮ 50.
Jones, “The European Union and the Security Dilemma,ˮ 132-138. Paul Kennedy also estimates that during Cold War, at about 50-60% of US military forces were allocated in Europe. Kennedy, The Rise and the Fall of the Empires, 518.
Marc Trachtenberg, “Preventive War and U.S. Foreign Policy,ˮ Security Studies 16, no. 1 (January–March 2007): 2-5.
Rowland T. Maddock, “The Soviet Defense Burden and Arms Control,” Journal of Peace Research 24, no. 4 (December 1987): 388-391.
Paul Dunne, “The Defense Industrial Base,ˮ in Handbook of Defense Economics, ed. Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1995), 411-414.
Chistos Kollias, Emmanouel Athanasiou and Stavros Zographakis, “The Effects of Defense Spending Reductions: A CGE Estimation of the Foregone Peace Dividend In the Case of Greece,ˮ Defense And Peace Economics 13, no. 2 (January 2002): 111.
Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley, “Defense in a Globalized World: An Introduction,” in Handbook of Defense Economics ed. Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1995), 618.
Ronald R. Krebs and Jennifer K. Lobasz, “Fixing the Meaning of 9/11: Hegemony, Coercion, and the Road to War in Iraq,” Security Studies 16, no. 3 (July–September 2007): 415.
Walter Enders, “Terrorism: An Empirical Analysis,ˮ in Handbook of Defense Economics ed. Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1995), 849-850.
Congressional Budget Office, Withdrawal of U.S. Forces from Iraq: Possible Timelines and Estimated Costs (Washington, D.C.: 2009), 50. See also the The Military Balance, (2010), 27.
Felix Berenskoetter and Bastian Giegerich, “From NATO to ESDP: A Social Constructivist Analysis of German Strategic Adjustment after the End of the Cold War,” Security Studies 19, (August 2010): 434-435
Ronald R. Krebs, “Exchange: A Debate Miscast-Or What Can We Learn From the Case of the EDC?” Security Studies 11, no. 3 (spring 2002): 198.
Anderson and Seitz, “European Security and Defense Policy Demystified”, 26. See also Berenskoetter and Giegerich, “From NATO to ESDP,” 441.
Evaghorou L. Evaghoras, “The Economics of Defense of Greece and Turkey: A Contemporary Theoretical Approach for States Rivalry and Arms Race,” Center for International Politics Thessaloniki, paper presented on the 10th Annual International Conference on Economics and Security, 22-24 June 2006.
Jeremy Βlack, Great Powers and the Quest for Hegemony, The world order since 1500 (London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2008), 1-10.
Christina Romer and Jared Bernstein, “The Job Impact of the American recovery and Reinvestment Plan, Office of the Vice President-Elect,” Council of Economic Advisers, (January 2009): 3-11.
Todd Harrison, “Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2010 Defense Budget Request,” Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, (2009): 1.
Sharp, “Fiscal Year 2010 Pentagon Defense Spending”, 8-10. The tremendous difference in defense expenditures between US and the rest of the world is also verified by other reliable sources: See, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/policy/securityspending/articles/US_vs_Global and The Military Balance, (2010), 462-472.
Laicie Olson, “Fiscal Year 2011 Defense Spending Request: Briefing Book,” Center for Arms Control and Non- Proliferation (February 2010): 3-4.
Jomana Amara, “Evaluating NATO Long Run Defense Burdens Using Unit Root Tests,” Defense And Peace Economics 18, no.2 (April 2007): 157-167.
Anthony Annett, Jörg Decressin and Michael Deppler, “Reforming the Stability and Growth Pact,” International Monetary Fund (February 2005): 2-5. For the EU commitments about the economic support of east Europe states see Artis and Nixson, The Economics of the European Union, 85-94.
Keith Hartley, “The Common European Security and Defense Policy: An Economic Perspective,” Centre for Defense Economics, (2001): 3-4.
Keith Hartley, “Industrial Policies in the Defense Sector,ˮ in Handbook of Defense Economics ed. Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1995), 462-466.
Jonathan D. Caverley, “United States Hegemony and the New Economics of Defense,ˮ Security Studies 16, no. 4 (October–December 2007): 607.
Anthony H. Cordesman and Hans Ulrich Kaeser, “America’s Self-Destroying Airpower,” Center for Strategic and International Studies (December 16 2008): 19-25
Mark Van De Vijver and Bart Vos, “Improving Competitive Positioning in the Aerospace Industry: A Case Study of Dutch Participation in the F35 Lightning II (JSF) Programme,ˮ Defense And Peace Economics 18, no. 6 (2007): 509-515
William P. Rogerson, “Incentive Models of the Defense Procurement Process,” in Handbook of Defense Economics, ed. Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1995), 311-316.
Keith Hartley, “The arms Industry, Procurement and Industrial Policies,” in Handbook of Defense Economics, ed. Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (Amsterdam: North Holland, 2007), 1152-1155.
Yoav Gortzak, “How Great Powers Rule: Coercion and Positive Inducements in International Order Enforcement,” Security Studies 14, no. 4 (October–December 2005): 678. For the British naval and geopolitical supremacy see Kennedy, The Rise and the Fall of the Great Powers, 151-158.
Andrew F. Krepinevich, “An Army at the Crossroads, Strategy for the Long Haul Series,” Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, (2008): 1-3.
Evan Braden Montgomery, “Defense Planning for the Lon Haul: Scenarios, Operational Concepts, and the Future Security Environment,” Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, (2009): 8.