Odozi, John C. (2012): Socio economic gender inequality in Nigeria: A review of theory and measurements.
Download (372kB) | Preview
The aim of this article is to synthesize the various views of gender inequality and various indicators used to measure it. It argues that women lag behind men in most indicators of socio-economic development and they constitute the majority of the poor, the unemployed and the socially disadvantaged. Productive differences as espoused by the traditional neoclassical as well as the institutions and markets advancement are not sufficient to explain gender inequality. The political economy view of power and self-interest enshrined at the household, community and government play relevant role in defining gender gaps. Growth models that are institutionally blind completely leaves out the impact that social institutions such as family, school, unions, government have in shaping inequalities. The collective self-interest and power within institutions motivate men and women to allocate the resource under their control to activities that best enable them to fulfill their obligations rather than to activities that are common
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Socio economic gender inequality in Nigeria: A review of theory and measurements|
|Keywords:||Gender; inequality; Growth; socio economic gap, Policitcal economy and Sustainable development|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D - Microeconomics > D3 - Distribution > D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
B - History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches > B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches > B54 - Feminist Economics
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
|Depositing User:||JOHN C. ODOZI|
|Date Deposited:||09. Oct 2012 10:28|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 01:07|
Aighbokan, (2000) Determinants of Regional Poverty in Nigeria. Research Report 22 Development Policy Centre, Ibadan Nigeria.
Ajani, O. I. Y. 2008. Gender dimensions of agriculture, poverty, nutrition, and food security in Nigeria. IFPRI Nigeria Strategy Support Program Brief 5. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Akder H. (1994) "A means to Closing Gaps: Disaggregated Human Development Index",Human Development Report Office, Occasional Papers 18, New York, 1994.
Aminu, A. (2010) Determinants of Participation and Earnings in Wage Employment Nigeria 5th IZA/World Bank Conference: Employment and Development Cape Town, South Africa May 03-May4, 2010
Awoyemi, (2004). Gender Inequalities and economic growth: New evidence from cassava-based farm holdings in rural south-western Nigeria Department of Agricultural Economics University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Bardhan, K. and Klasen, S. (1999) ‘UNDP’s Gender-Related Indices: A Critical Review’,World Development, 27, 98-1010.
Bardhan, K. and Klasen, S. (2000) ‘On UNDP’s Revisions to the Gender-Related Development Index’, Journal of Human Development, 1, 191-95.
Beneria, Lourdes and Permanyer Inaki(2010). The Measurement of Socio-economic Gender Inequality Revisited. Development and Change vol 41 No. 3
Bluestone B and Harrison B (1982) The Deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books.
Canagarajah, S. and Thomas, S. 2001. Poverty in a Wealthy Economy: The case of Nigeria. Journal of African Economies 10.2: 143-173.
Canagarajah, S., Ngwafon, J. and Thomas, S. 1997. The Evolution of Poverty and Welfare in Nigeria, 1985-1992. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1715. Retrieved January, 10 2008, from www.worldbank.org.
Dijkstra, A. Geske and Lucia C. Hanmer(2000). Measuring socio-economic gender inequality: towards an alternative to the UNDP gender-related development index. Feminist economics 6(2): 41-75
Dollar, David and Roberta Gatti. 1999. “Gender Inequality, Income and Growth: Are Good Times Good for Women?” World Bank Policy Research Report on Gender and Gender and Development, Development Working Paper Series, No. 1.
Dooley MD and Gottschalk P (1982) Does a younger male labor-force mean greater earnings inequality? Monthly Labor Review 105(11): 42–45.
Dooley MD and Gottschalk P (1984) Earnings inequality among males in the United States – Trends and the effect of labor-force growth. Journal of Political Economy 92(1): 59–89.
Fasoranti, M. M. 2006. “A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Effectiveness Of Cassava-Based Cropping Systems In Ondo State, Nigeria.” Phd Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, FUTA, Akure.
Galor, O.and Zeira, J. 1993. Income distribution and Macroeconomics. Review of Economic Studies 60:32-52.
Henle P and Ryscavage P (1980) The distribution of earned income among men and women, 1958–77. Monthly Labor Review 103(4): 3–10.
Heshmati, Almas (2004) Inequalities and Their Measurement IZA DP No. 1219 The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn
Kimhi, Ayal (2008) Male Income, Female Income, and Household Income Inequality in Israel: A Decomposition Analysis* Discussion Paper No. 17.08 The Center for Agricultural Economic Research. The Department of Agricultural Economics and Management
Kingdon, G., and Knight, J. (2001) .Why high open unemployment and small informal sector in South Africa?.Centre for the Study of African Economies, Department of Economics,University of Oxford, October 2001.
Klasen, S. 1999. “Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions. World Bank Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series, No. 7.
Klasen, S.2005 Pro Poor Growth and Gender: What can we learn from the Literature and the OPPG Case Studies? Discussion Paper by Stephan Klasen, University of Göttingen to the Operationalizing Pro-Poor Growth (OPPG) Working Group of AFD, DFID, BMZ (GTZ/KfW) and the World Bank siteresources.worldbank.org/
Klasen, Stephan and Dana Schuler(2009). Reforming the Gender-related index(GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure(GEM): Some specific proposals . discussion Paper No. 186. Gottingen: Ibero-America Institute for Economic research
Klasen, S. 2006. UNDP’s Gender-related measures: Some conceptual problems and possible solutions. Journal of Human Development 7(2): 243-274.
Knowles, S., Lorgelly P.K, and Owen, P.D. 2002. “Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence.” Oxford Economic Papers 54: 118-149.
Kuznets, S. 1955. Economic Growth and Income Inequality. The American Economic Review XLV.1: 1-28.
Langer Arnim, Abdul Raufu Mustapha and Frances Stewart(2007). Horizontal Inequalities in Nigeria, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire: Issues and Policies. Crise working paper No. 45 Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, CRISE Department of International Development, University of Oxford
Liverpool-Tasie, Lenis Saweda, Kuku Oluyemisi, Ajibola Akeem (2011) Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) NSSP Working Paper No. 21 International food policy research institute
Nolan, Brian (2009) Inequality and Public Policy UCD School of applied and social science working paper series.
O’ Donnell, O., Van Doorslaer, E., Wagstaff, A. and Lindelow, L. 2008. Analysing Health Equity using Household Survey Data. A guide to techniques and their Implementation. WBI Learning Resources Series.
Otitoju, M. and C. J. Arene. 2010. “Constraints and Determinants of Technical Efficiency in Medium- Scale Soybean Production in Benue State, Nigeria.” African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(17): 2276–2280
Oyekale, A.S., Adeoti, A.I. and Oyekale, T.O. 2006. Measurement and Sources of income inequality in Rural and Urban Nigeria. A paper presented during the 5th PEP Research Network general meeting. Addis ababa, Ethopia.
Palmer-Jones, Richard (2008) Microeconomic evidence On gender inequality and growth in Nigeria. School of Development Studies University of East Anglia. Draft
Quisumbing, A. R. 2003. What Have We Learned from Research on Intrahousehold Allocation? In Agnes R. Quisumbing (ed.) Household Decisions, Gender and Development: A Synthesis of Recent Research. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute. 551-569.
Sahota (1978) Sahota, G.S. 1977. The Distribution of the Benefits of Public Expenditure in Panama. Public Finance Quarterly 5.2:203-30.
Scholtz, Hanno (2010) Inequality rose from above, so it shall fall again: Income skewness trends in 16 OECD countries as evidence for a second Kuznets cycle 2010 51: 246 International Journal of Comparative Sociology
Schutz, R.R., 1951. On the Measurement of income nequality. American Economic Review 41: 107-122
Teriba and Philips (1971) Teriba, O. and Philips, A. 1971. Income Distribution and National integration. The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies 13.1: 77-122
Tzannatos, Z. 1999. “Women and Labor Market Changes in the Global Economy: Growth Helps, Inequalities Hurt and Public Policy Matters.” World Development 27(3):551-56
Udry, C. 1996. Gender, agricultural production, and the theory of the household. Journal of Political Economy 104 (5): 1010–1046.
Udry, C., J. Hoddinott, H. Alderman, and L. Haddad. 1995. Gender differentials in farm productivity: Implications for household efficiency and agricultural policy. Food Policy 20 (5): 407–423.
World Bank. 2001. Engender Development Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice. Washington, D.C. and New York: World Bank and Oxford University Press.