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Error-correction based panel estimates of the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy usage and output in Gulf Cooperation Council countries

HAMDI, Helmi and SBIA, Rashid (2012): Error-correction based panel estimates of the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy usage and output in Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

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Abstract

This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real output within a panel vector error correction model for six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates over the period 1980–2009. In the long-run, there is a dynamic relationship between carbon emissions and income, which confirms the presence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for GCC countries. The short-run dynamics results reveal a bi-directional causality between carbon and energy usage but reject the existence of EKC.

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