Havranek, Tomas and Herman, Dominik and Irsova, Zuzana (2016): Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis.
Download (1MB) | Preview
The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systematically depending on the exact data and methodology applied. Using Bayesian model averaging we identify the most important factors driving the heterogeneity of the reported effects: data frequency, estimation technique (simulation vs. regression), and, importantly, the latitude of the country considered. Energy savings are larger for countries farther away from the equator, while subtropical regions consume more energy because of DST.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis|
|Keywords:||daylight saving time; energy savings; Bayesian model averaging; meta-analysis; publication bias|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q4 - Energy > Q48 - Government Policy|
|Depositing User:||Zuzana Irsova|
|Date Deposited:||13 Oct 2016 13:47|
|Last Modified:||13 Oct 2016 13:48|
ADEME (1995): “Internal ADEME (French Environ- ment and Energy Management Agency - Agence de l’environnement et de la maitrise de l’energie) estimate on energy savings from DST.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thorough examination of the implications of summer-time arrangements in the Member States of the European Union,” Executive summary. Commis- sion Europeenne 1999: Leiden.
ADEME (2010): “Impact of the clock change (in French: Impact du changement d’heure).” Impact study prepared by energies demain for ademe, Agence de l’environnement et de la maitrise de l’energie.
Ahuja, D. R. & D. P. SenGupta (2012): “Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones.” Energy Pol- icy 42: pp. 657–669.
Ahuja, D. R., D. P. SenGupta, & V. K. Agrawal (2007): “Energy savings from advancing the Indian Standard Time by half an hour.” Current Science 93(3): pp. 298–302.
Aries, M. B. C. & G. R. Newsham (2008): “Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A liter- ature review.” Energy Policy 36(6): pp. 1858–1866.
Basconi, J. (2007): “The Impact of Daylight Savings Time on Electricity Consumption in Indiana.” Work- ing paper, University of Notre Dame, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.
Bellere, S. (1996): “Report on the proposal for an eighth European Parliament and Council Directive on summer-time arrangements (COM(96)0106 - C4- 0252/96 - 96/0082(COD)).” Opinion (to the letter of 26 april 1996 the commission submitted to parliament), Committee on Transport and Tourism of the European Parliament, PE 218.712/fin.
Belzer, D. B., S. W. Hadley, & S.-M. Chin (2008): “Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on Na- tional Energy Consumption: Technical Documenta- tion for Report to Congress.” Energy policy act of 2005, section 110, U. S. Department of Energy.
Binder, R. H. (1976): “Testimony of Robert H. Binder, assistant secretary for policy, plans and international affairs, U. S. Department of Transportation, be- fore the House Subcommittee on transportation and commerce, on legislation concerning daylight saving time, June 8, 1976.” Technical report, U. S. Depart- ment of Transportation.
Bouillon, H. (1983): “Mikro- und Makroanalyse der Auswirkungen der Sommerzeit auf den Energie- und Leistungsbedarf in den verschiedenen Energiever- brauchssektoren der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.” Unpublished dissertation, Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen.
Cameron, A. C., J. B. Gelbach, & D. L. Miller (2011): “Robust Inference With Multiway Cluster- ing.” Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 29(2): pp. 238–249.
Coate, D. & S. Markowitz (2004): “The effects of daylight and daylight saving time on US pedestrian fatalities and motor vehicle occupant fatalities.” Ac- cident Analysis & Prevention 36(3): pp. 351–357.
Crowley, S., J. FitzGerald, & L. Malaguzzi Va- leri (2014): “Changing Time: Possible Effects on Peak Electricity Generation.” Papers WP486, Eco- nomic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
Danish Government Report (1974): “Betaenkning over forslag til lov om anvendelse af sommertid.” Government report (betaenkning afgivet af erhverv- sudvalget d. 27.3.1974), Danmarks regeringer (med dansk statsminister Poul Hartling).
Doleac, J. L. & N. J. Sanders (2015): “Under the Cover of Darkness: How Ambient Light Influences Criminal Activity.” Review of Economics and Statis- tics 97(5): pp. 1093–1103.
Doucouliagos, C. & T. Stanley (2013): “Are All Economic Facts Greatly Exaggerated? Theory of Competition and Selectivity.” Journal of Economic Surveys 27(2): pp. 316 – 339.
Doucouliagos, C., T. Stanley, & M. Giles (2012): “Are estimates of the value of a statistical life exag- gerated?” Journal of Health Economics 31(1): pp. 197–206.
Ebersbach, K. & H. Schaefer (1980): “Sommerzeit eration of Energy Companies in the Netherlands (Energie-Nederland) on energy savings from DST.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thorough examination of the impli- cations of summer-time arrangements in the Member States of the European Union,” Executive summary. Commission Europeenne 1999: Leiden.
EVA (1978): “Internal EVA (Austrian Energy Agency - Energieverwertungsagentur) forecast on energy sav- ings from DST via Mag. Fickel.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thor- ough examination of the implications of summer- time arrangements in the Member States of the Euro- pean Union,” Executive summary. Commission Eu- ropeenne 1999: Leiden.
Feldkircher, M. & S. Zeugner (2009): “Benchmark Priors Revisited: On Adaptive Shrinkage and the Supermodel Effect in Bayesian Model Averaging.” IMF Working Papers 09/202, International Mone-
U¨ berraschendes Ergebnis
einer detaillierteren Untersuchung: Es wird mehr O¨ l verbraucht.” Energiewirschaftliche Tasesfragen 30(7): pp. 496–498.
Ebersole, N., D. Rubin, E. Darling, I. Englander, L. Frenkel, N. Meyerhoff, D. Prerau, K. Scha- effer, & J. Morrison (1975): “The Daylight Sav- ing Time Study: Volume I - Final Report on the Operation and Effects of Daylight Saving Time.” A report to Congress from the Secretary of Transporta- tion, Washington: US Department of Transporta- tion.
Ebersole, N. U. (1974): “The Year-Round Daylight Saving Time Study.” National government publi- cation, Final report to Congress from the Secretary of Transportation, Washington: US Department of Transportation.
Eicher, T. S., C. Papageorgiou, & A. E. Raftery (2011): “Default priors and predictive performance in Bayesian model averaging, with application to growth determinants.” Journal of Applied Econo- metrics 26(1): pp. 30–55.
ELTRA (1984): “Internal ELTRA (Denmark Power Grid Operator) estimate on energy savings from DST via Mr. Henning Parbo.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thor- ough examination of the implications of summer- time arrangements in the Member States of the Euro- pean Union,” Executive summary. Commission Eu- ropeenne 1999: Leiden.
ENEL (1999): “Internal ENEL (Italian national energy company - Ente nazionale per l’energia elettrica) es- timate on energy savings from DST via ing. Mario Moro.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thorough examination of the implications of summer-time arrangements in the Member States of the European Union,” Executive summary. Commission Europeenne 1999: Leiden.
EnergieNed (1995): “Internal estimate of the Fed-
Feldkircher, M. & S. Zeugner (2012): “The im- pact of data revisions on the robustness of growth determinants—a note on ‘determinants of economic growth: Will data tell?” Journal of Applied Econo- metrics 27(4): pp. 686–694.
Ferguson, S. A., D. F. Preusser, A. K. Lund, P. L. Zador, & R. G. Ulmer (1995): “Daylight saving time and motor vehicle crashes: the reduction in pedestrian and vehicle occupant fatalities.” Amer- ican Journal of Public Health 85(1): pp. 92–96.
Fernandez, C., E. Ley, & M. Steel (2001): “Bench- mark priors for Bayesian model averaging.” Journal of Econometrics 100(2): pp. 381–427.
Filliben, J. J., I. R. Bartky, H. Ku, & H. Oser (1976): “Review and technical evaluation of the DOT daylight saving time study.” Technical ap- pendix to NBS Internal Report (Hearing to Daylight Savings Act of 1976), pp. 125-351 KF27.I5589, US National Bureau of Standards, Washington.
Fischer, U. (2000): “Does the summer time help to save energy? (in German: Hilft die Sommerzeit beim Sparen von Energie?” Licht 52(5): pp. 574–577.
Fong, W. K., H. Matsumoto, Y. F. Lun, & R. Kimura (2007): “Energy Savings Potential of the Summer Time Concept in Different Regions of Japan From the Perspective of Household Lighting.” Jour- nal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 6(2): pp. 371–378.
Galbraith, R. F. (1988): “A note on graphical presen- tation of estimated odds ratios from several clinical trials.” Statistics in Medicine 7(8): pp. 889–894.
Havranek, T. (2010): “Rose effect and the euro: is the magic gone?” Review of World Economics 146(2): pp. 241–261.
Havranek, T. (2015): “Measuring Intertemporal Sub- stitution: The Importance of Method Choices and
Selective Reporting.” Journal of the European Eco- nomic Association 13(6): pp. 1180–1204.
Havranek, T., R. Horvath, Z. Irsova, & M. Rusnak (2015a): “Cross-country heterogeneity in intertem- poral substitution.” Journal of International Eco- nomics 96(1): pp. 100–118.
Havranek, T. & Z. Irsova (2011): “Estimating Verti- cal Spillovers from FDI: Why Results Vary and What the True Effect Is.” Journal of International Eco- nomics 85(2): pp. 234–244.
Havranek, T., Z. Irsova, & K. Janda (2012): “De- mand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than com- monly thought.” Energy Economics 34(1): pp. 201– 207.
Havranek, T., Z. Irsova, K. Janda, & D. Zilberman (2015b): “Selective reporting and the social cost of carbon.” Energy Economics 51(C): pp. 394–406.
Havranek, T. & O. Kokes (2015): “Income elastic- ity of gasoline demand: A meta-analysis.” Energy Economics 47(C): pp. 77–86.
Hill, S. I., F. Desobry, E. W. Garnsey, & Y. F. Chong (2010): “The impact on energy consump- tion of daylight saving clock changes.” Energy Policy 38(9): pp. 4955–4965.
Hillman, M. (1993): Time for Change: Setting Clocks Forward by One Hour throughout the Year. A new review of the evidence. Policy Studies Institute, Lon- don.
HMSO (1970): Review of British Standard Time. Com- mand 4512 Series. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office: Great Britain - Home Office and Great Britain - Scot- tish Home and Health Dept.
IFPI (2001): “Interim report: The energy impact of daylight saving time implementation in Indiana.” Technical report, Indiana Fiscal Policy Institute.
Innanen, K. A. & S. E. H. Innanen (1978): “On the Management of Daylight Saving Time in Southern Ontario.” Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 72(4): pp. 206–219.
Kamstra, M. J., L. A. Kramer, & M. D. Levi (2000): “Losing sleep at the market: the daylight saving anomaly.” American Economic Review 90(4): pp. 1005–1011.
Kandel, A. (2007): “Electricity Savings of Early Day- light Saving Time.” Staff paper, California Energy Commission.
Kandel, A. & D. Metz (2001): “Effects of Daylight Saving Time on California Electricity Use.” Staff report, California Energy Commission.
Kandel, A. & M. Sheridan (2007): “The Effect of Early Daylight Saving Time on California Electricity Consumption: A Statistical Analysis.” Staff report, California Energy Commission.
Karasu, S. (2010): “The effect of daylight saving time options on electricity consumption of Turkey.” Energy 35(9): pp. 3773–3782.
Kass, R. E. & A. E. Raftery (1995): “Bayes Fac- tors.” Journal of the American Statistical Associa- tion 90(430): pp. 773–795.
Kellogg, R. & H. Wolff (2007): “Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment.” IZA Discussion Paper 2704, Institute for the Study of Labor.
Kellogg, R. & H. Wolff (2008): “Daylight time and energy: Evidence from an Australian experiment.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Manage- ment 56(3): pp. 207–220.
Kotchen, M. J. & L. E. Grant (2011): “Does Day- light Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Indiana.” The Review of Eco- nomics and Statistics 93(4): pp. 1172–1185.
Kozuskova, K. (2011): “Jake jsou naklady a vynosy letniho casu.” Bachelor thesis, The University of Economics, Prague, Faculty of Economics.
Krarti, M. & A. Hajiah (2011): “Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait.” Energy Policy 39(5): pp. 2319–2329.
Kuehnle, D. & C. Wunder (2014): “Using the life satisfaction approach to value daylight savings time transitions. Evidence from Britain and Germany.” BGPE Discussion Paper 156, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics.
Lahti, T., E. Nysten, J. Haukka, P. Sulander, & T. Partonen (2010): “Daylight saving time tran- sitions and road traffic accidents.” Journal of En- vironmental and Public Health 2010(657167): pp. 1–3.
Ley, E. & M. F. Steel (2009): “On the effect of prior assumptions in Bayesian model averaging with ap- plications to growth regression.” Journal of Applied Econometrics 24(4): pp. 651–674.
Littlefair, P. (1990): “Effects of clock change on lighting energy use.” Energy World 175: pp. 15– 17.
MCO (2001): “Internal estimate on energy savings from DST from electricity market company M-Co New Zealand.” In G. R. Aries, M. B. C. & Newsham (editor), “Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review,” volume 38(2008), pp. 1858–1866. Energy Policy.
Mirza, F. M. & O. Bergland (2011): “The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Ev- idence from southern Norway and Sweden.” Energy Policy 39(6): pp. 3558–3571.
Momani, M. A., B. Yatim, & M. A. M. Ali (2009): “The impact of the daylight saving time on electric- ity consumption—A case study from Jordan.” En- ergy Policy 37(5): pp. 2042–2051.
Muller, L., D. Schiereck, M. W. Simpson, & C. Voigt (2009): “Daylight saving effect.” Jounal of Multinational Financial Management 19(2): pp. 127–138.
Nordic Council (1974): “Sommertid/ny normaltid.” Joint Nordic commission report series (Nordisk Utredningsserie) 12, Nordisk Ministerrad, Stock- holm.
Olders, H. (2003): “Average sunrise time predicts de- pression prevalence.” Journal of Psychosomatic Re- search 55(2): pp. 99–105.
Pellen, A. (2014): “How Does Daylight Saving Time Affect Electricity Demand?” 2014 Conference (58th) No. 165870, February 4-7, 2014, Port Maquarie, Aus- tralia.
Pout, C. (2006): “The effect of clock changes on energy consumption in UK buildings.” Technical Report Client report number 222-601, Building Research Es- tablishment.
Rajaram, P. & R. Rawal (2011): “Potential Sav- ings in lighting energy due to advancement in Indian Standard time: An Enquiry in context of commercial office spaces in India.” In “Proceedings of Building Simulation: 12th Conference of International Build- ing Performance Simulation Association, Sydney, 14- 16 November,” pp. 1639–1646.
Ramos, G. & R. Diaz (1999): “A methodology to clas- sify residential customers by their pattern of use.” In “Proceedings of the Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),” volume 1, pp. 226– 231.
Reckova, D. & Z. Irsova (2015): “Publication Bias in Measuring Anthropogenic Climate Change.” Energy & Environment 26(5): pp. 853–862.
Reincke, K.-J. & F. van den Broek (1999): Sum- mer Time: Thorough examination of the implica- tions of summer-time arrangements in the Member States of the European Union. Executive summary. Study conducted by Research voor Beleid InternaShapiro, C. M., F. Blake, E. Fossy, & B. Adams (1990): “Daylight saving time in psychiatric illness.” Journal of Affective Disorders 19(3): pp. 177–181.
Shimoda, Y., T. Asahi, A. Taniguchi, & M. Mizuno (2007): “Evaluation of city-scale impact of residen- tial energy conservation measures using the detailed end-use simulation model.” Energy 32(9): pp. 1617– 1633.
Shore, H. (1984): “Summer Time and Electricity Con- servation: The Israeli Case.” Energy Journal 5(2): pp. 53–70.
Stanley, T. D. (2001): “Wheat from Chaff: Meta- analysis as Quantitative Literature Review.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 15(3): pp. 131–150.
Stanley, T. D. (2005): “Beyond Publication Bias.” Journal of Economic Surveys 19(3): pp. 309–345.
Terna (2016): “Daylight saving time: In seven months Italy saved...” Press releases from october 2006-2016, Terna Group: grid operator for electricity transmis- sion in Italy.
Toro, W., R. Tigre, & B. Sampaio (2015): “Day- light Saving Time and incidence of myocardial in- farction: Evidence from a regression discontinuity design.” Economics Letters 136: pp. 1361–4.
VDEW (1993): “Internal VDEW (Association of Ger- man Power Utilities - Vereinigung Deutscher Elek- trizita¨tswerke e.V.) estimate on energy savings from DST via Mr. Hans-Werner Alt.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thor- ough examination of the implications of summer- time arrangements in the Member States of the Euro- pean Union,” Executive summary. Commission Eu- ropeenne 1999: Leiden.
Verdejo, H., C. Becker, D. Echiburu, W. Escud- ero, & E. Fucks (2016): “Impact of daylight saving time on the Chilean residential consumption.” En- ergy Policy 88(C): pp. 456–464.
Wanko & Ingeborg (1983): “Die Einfu¨hrung tional for the European Commission. Commissionder Sommerzeit inO¨ sterreich: Eine enEuropeenne, Leiden.
Rock, B. A. (1997): “Impact of daylight saving time on residential energy consumption and cost.” Energy and Buildings 25(1): pp. 63–68.
Sarwar, R., R. Chakrabartty, N. Ahmed, K. M. Ahmed, & Q. Ahsan (2010): “Effect of Daylight Saving Time on Bangladesh Power System.” In “Proceedings from the International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE) 2010: Dhaka,” pp. 291–293.
SEP (1995): “Internal estimate of the Samenwerkende Energie Producenten (SEP) on energy savings from DST.” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thorough examination of the implications of summer-time arrangements in the Member States of the European Union,” Executive summary. Commission Europeenne 1999: Leiden.
Vergiewirtschaftliche Betraucht der Ausgangsvo- raussetzungen und Auswirkungen.” Technical report, Economic University in Vienna.
Weinhardt, F. (2013): “The Importance of Time Zone Assignment: Evidence from Residential Electricity Consumption.” SERC discussion paper 126, Spatial Economics Research Center (SERC), London School of Economics: London.
Wiener Stadtwerke (1999): “Interview with Mr. Hochwarter from Wiener Stadtwerke Geschafts- feldleiter der Ubertragung (Vienna Public Utilities Company).” In K.-J. Reincke & F. van den Broek (editors), “Summer Time: Thorough examination of the implications of summer-time arrangements in the Member States of the European Union,” Executive summary. Commission Europeenne 1999: Leiden.