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Feminization of entrepreneurship in developing countries? Evidence from GEM data

Jorge, Velilla (2017): Feminization of entrepreneurship in developing countries? Evidence from GEM data.

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Abstract

Certain analyses have studied gender differences in entrepreneurial activity, but, in general, the lack of specific controls may have led to biased results. In this paper, we analyze whether male or female individuals have a higher probability of becoming entrepreneurs in developing regions (Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, South-East Asia, and Africa). Using GEM data from 2009 to 2014, we avoid the potential confounding problems arising from the definition of entrepreneurship. We find that the descriptive statistics show constant gender gaps in entrepreneurial activity in favor of males, for all the regions. However, when individual and environmental entrepreneurial characteristics are taken into account, these gaps diminish significantly in Eastern Europe, disappear in Asia and Africa, and are reversed in Latin America.

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