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Les pays de l’Afrique du Nord et les IDE face à la problématique de l’attractivité

Menna, Khaled and Mehibel, Samer (2018): Les pays de l’Afrique du Nord et les IDE face à la problématique de l’attractivité.

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According to the latest UNCTAD report on foreign direct investment (Unctad, 2017) Global FDI flows are expected to reach nearly $ 1.8 trillion in 2017, then $ 1.85 trillion in 2018 - still well below the record of 2007. North Africa received $ 14.5 billion as inward FDI flows, accounting for 3.4% of global flows. This rate was 3.5% in 2014 and 5.4% in 2013. The growth despite the decline in the share growth of about 11%. This increase is mainly due to the reforms introduced to FDI regulations and new gas discoveries in Egypt. Empirical works on FDI suggest many explanatory variables of attractiveness, but ultimately, no consensus emerges1. It is about several industrial factors (transport costs, implementation costs, salary costs, technological advantages, activity agglomerations … etc.), commercial (market size, proximity to demand, barriers to trade, membership in an integration zone) than institutional (tax or commercial policy, legislative provisions on capital repatriation or capital movement, country risk, business climate) (Alaya and al, 2009). This work looks at the comparison of North African countries with other countries. Ten countries were chosen, chosen because they have common problematics, and spread throughout the world. Then, based on the work of Unctad2, an " attractiveness contextualized index" is built, simple but robust, which makes it possible to locate, for each country of the sample, the aspects on which it is strong or weak. The comparison between the countries of North Africa can lead to economic policy proposals regarding FDI. The results show that the countries of North Africa had similar results except Tunisia, which ranked sixth among the countries in the sample. The other countries, Morocco, Egypt and Algeria obtained positions 7, 8 and 10 respectively. These results confirm the results obtained in terms of FDI inward flows. The attractiveness policies already practiced have shown their limits. A renewal of these policies based on research and development could turn the tables and highlight the assets available to the countries of North Africa.

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