Brenton, Paul and Edwards-Jones, Gareth and Jensen, Michael (2008): Carbon Labelling and Low Income Country Exports: An Issues Paper.
Download (168kB) | Preview
In response to growing concerns over climate change, consumers and firms in developed countries are considering their carbon footprint. Carbon labelling is being explored as a mechanism for greenhouse gas emission reduction primarily by private actors. This paper discusses the carbon accounting activities and carbon labelling schemes that are being developed to address these concerns with a view to their impact on small stakeholders, especially low income countries. This discussion centres on transportation, and the common presumption that products produced locally in the country of consumption will have an advantage in terms of carbon emissions, and on size. Exports from low income countries typically depend on long distance transportation and are produced by relatively small firms and tiny farms who will find it difficult to participate in complex carbon labelling schemes. However, the popular belief that trade by definition is problematic since it necessitates transportation, which is a major source of emissions, is generally not true. The scientific evidence shows that carbon efficiencies elsewhere in the supply chain may more than offset the emissions associated with transportation. Indeed, the effective inclusion of low income countries in labelling schemes may offer important opportunities for carbon emission reductions due to their favourable climactic conditions and their current use of low energy intensive production techniques. The disadvantages of small size can be reduced by carbon labelling schemes that use innovative solutions to low cost data collection and certification.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Carbon Labelling and Low Income Country Exports: An Issues Paper|
|Keywords:||carbon labelling; exports; low income countries;|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F18 - Trade and Environment
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q56 - Environment and Development ; Environment and Trade ; Sustainability ; Environmental Accounts and Accounting ; Environmental Equity ; Population Growth
|Depositing User:||Paul Brenton|
|Date Deposited:||06 Jun 2008 07:37|
|Last Modified:||23 Jun 2016 06:32|
Barrett, J., Vallack, H., Jones, A., & Haq, G., (2002): A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of York - Technical Report. Stockholm Environment Institute,York.
Blanke, M.M. & Burdick, B. (2005): Food (miles) for thought. Energy balance for locally-grown versus imported apples fruit. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 12, 125-127.
Bouwman, A.F. and Taylor, J. A. (1006): Testing high-resolution nitrous oxide emission estimates against observation using an atmospheric transport model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, pp. 307–318.
BSI (2008): PAS 2050 – Specification for the measurement of the embodied greenhouse gas emissions in products and services. Working Draft. British Standards.
Business Week (2007): Wal-Mart: Measuring Just How Green. September 25, 2007, <http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/sep2007/db20070924_008782.htm?
Carbon Trust (2008): Carbon footprinting takes major step forward with 7 new companies committing to carbon count their products. Press release of 4 February. Carbon Trust.
Carbon Trust (2007a): Carbon Footprint Measurement Methodology. Version 1.3 15 March 2007. Carbon Trust.
Carbon Trust (2007b): Nine leading companies commit to carbon footprint products. Press release of 19 September 2007. Carbon Trust.
Carbon Trust (2007c): Tesco and the Carbon Trust partner to map carbon footprint of 30 products. Press release of 11 October 2007. Carbon Trust.
Casino, Bio IS and ADEME (2007): Un nouvel étiquetage des produits de grande consommation. Paris: Casino, Bio Intelligence Service and Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie.
Commission of the European Communities (2008): Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. COM(2008) 19 FINAL, 2008/0016(COD). Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.
CRM Buyer (2007): Wal-Mart Offers Road Map for Greener Supply Chain. 24 September 2007, <http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/59477.html> (20 March 2007).
Deere, C (1999) ‘Eco-labelling and sustainable fisheries’, Working Paper, FAO, Rome
Defra (2005): The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
Dolan, C. and Humphrey, J. (2000): Governance and trade in fresh vegetables: the impact of UK supermarkets on the African horticulture industry. Journal of Development Studies 37(2), pp. 147-176.
European Parliament (2007): Trade and Climate Change. European Parliament non-legislative resolution T6-0576/2007.
Fogelberg, C. L. and Carlsson-Kanyama (2006): Environmental assessment of foods – an LCA inspired approach. Chapter 5 in C. Fuentes and A. Carlsson-Kanyama (eds.): Environmental information in the food supply system. Stockholm: FOI – Swedish Defence Research Agency.
Gibbon, P. (2003): Value-chain Governance, Public Regulation and Entry Barriers in the Global Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Chain into the EU. Development Policy Review 21 (5-6) , 615–625.
Gibbon, P. and Bolvig, S. (2007): The Economic Impact of a Ban on Imports of Air Freighted Organic Products to the UK. Consultancy report submitted to the International Trade Centre, Geneva.
Graffham, A., Karehu, E. & MacGregor, J. (2006) Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Kenya. Fresh Insights no. 6. Natural Resources Institute, International Institute for Environment and Development and Department for International Development.
Graffham, A. & MacGregor, J. (2006) Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Zambia. Fresh Insights no. 4. Natural Resources Institute, International Institute for Environment and Development, and Department for International Development.
Guardian (2003): Miles, miles and miles: How far has your basket of food travelled? The Guardian, May 10, 2003.
Heaps, T. (2007): Option: 13 – three choices for 2013 and beyond in the face of climate change. December 10, 2007, <http://option13.blogspot.com/2007/12/fly-on-wall-dec-8-1030-pm-bali-time.html> (20 March 2008).
Hendrickson, C. T., Horvath, A., Joshi, S. and Lave, L. B. (1998): Economic input-output models for environmental lifecycle assessment. Environmental Science and Technology 32(7), pp. 184A-191A.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (1995). Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, A (2006) ‘A life cycle analysis of UK supermarket imported green beans from Kenya’, Fresh Insights Paper 4, IIED, London
Kramer, K. J., Moll, H. C., Nonhebel, S. (1999):Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption. Energy Policy Vol. 27 (4): 203-216.
Leontief, W. and Ford, D. (1970): Environmental repercussions and the economic structure: an input-output approach. Review of Economics and Statistics 52(3), pp. 262-271.
Lillywhite, R., D Chandler, W. Grant, K Lewis, C. Firth, U. Schmutz and D. Halpin (2007) ‘Environmental footprint and sustainability of horticulture (including potatoes) – A comparison with other agricultural sectors’, University of Warwick, Warwick
Market New Zealand (2008): French retailers plan to double eco-friendly products within three years. 1 May 2008, <http://www.marketnewzealand.com/MNZ/news/story/14401/19033.aspx> (23 May 2008).
Milà i Canals, L., Cowell, S.J., Sim, S., & Basson, L. (2007a): Comparing local versus imported apples: A focus on energy use. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 14, 276-282.
Milà i Canals, L., Hospido, A., Clift, R., Truninger, M., Hounsome, B. & Edwards-Jones, G. (2007b): Environmental effects and consumer considerations of consuming lettuce in the UK winter. In: LCA in Foods – Book of proceedings of the 5th International Conference, 25-26 April 2007, Gothenburg, Sweden
Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement et de l’Aménagement durables and FCD (2008): Convention sur les engagements pris par les entreprises du Commerce et de la Distribution dans le Cadre du Grenelle de l’Environnement. Paris: Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement et de l’Aménagement durables and Féderation des Entreprises du Commerce et de la Distribution.
Minx, J., Wiedmann, T., Barrett, J. and Suh, S. (2007): Methods review to support the PAS process for the calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in goods and services. Report to the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs by Stockholm Environment Institute at the the University of York and Department for Bio-based products at the University of Minnesota, DEFRA, London, UK.
New York Times (2007): For Suppliers, the Pressure Is On. Article from November 7, 2007.
Roelandt, C., Van Wesemael, B., & Rounsevell, M. (2005): Estimating annual N2O emissions from agricultural soils in temperate climates. Global Change Biology, 11, 1701-1711.
Saunders, C., Barber, A., & Taylor, G. (2006): Food miles – comparative energy/emissions performance of New Zealand’s agriculture industry. AERU Research Report No. 285. Lincoln, New Zealand: Lincoln University
Schlich, E. H. and U. Fleissner (2005), ‘The ecology of scale: assessment of regional energy turnover and comparison with global food’, International Journal of Life Cycle Analysis, 10 (3), 219-223.
Sim, S. Barry, M., Clift, R. & Cowell, S. (2007): The relative importance of transport in determining an appropriate sustainability strategy for food sourcing. A case study of fresh produce supply chains. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12, 422-431.
Soil Association (2008): Air freight consultation – recommendations for standards. Bristol: Soil Association.
Soil Association (2007): Soil Association to ensure air freighted organic fresh produce benefits poor farmers - and challenges UK Government to do same for all air freighted produce. Press release of 25 October 2007. Bristol: Soil Association.
Smith, W.N., Desjardins, R.L., Grant, B., Li, C., Lemke, R., Rochette, P., Corre, M.D., & Pennock, D. (2002): Testing the DNDC model using N2O emissions at two experimental sites in Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 82(3), 365-374.
Vuichard, N., Soussana, J.F., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., Ammann, C., Calanca, P., Clifton-Brown, J., Fuhrer, J., Jones, M., & Martin, C. (2007): Estimating the greenhouse gas fluxes of European grasslands with a process-based model: 1. Model evaluation from in situ measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21(1), Art. No. GB1004.
Wallén A, Brandt N, Wennersten R. (2004):Does the Swedish consumer’s choice of food influence greenhouse gas emissions? Environmental Science & Policy 7, pp. 525–535
Wangler, Z. L. (2006): Sub-Saharan African horticultural exports to the UK and climate change: a literature review. Fresh Insights No.2, IIED. Funded by the UK Department for International Development.