yamamura, eiji (2007): The effects of the social norm on cigarette consumption: evidence from Japan using panel data.
Download (331Kb) | Preview
Using Japan’s prefecture-level panel data from 1989-2001, this paper examines the influence of the social norm on a person’s smoking behavior when the complementary relationship between smoking and drinking is taken into account. The key findings through a dynamic panel model controlling for unobserved prefecture-specific fixed effects are as follows: (1) Influence from others is stronger when people live more closely and cohesively. A tightly knit society results in a reduction of smoking through smoking-related interaction. (2) Smoking and drinking have a complementary relationship, and it is stronger when the consumption of alcohol is greater at the start. (3) The complementary relationship between smoking and dinking is attenuated if the cost of committing the annoying conduct (i.e., smoking) is high. Overall, this empirical study provides evidence that the psychological effect of the presence of surrounding people has a direct significant effect upon smoking behavior and, further, that it attenuates the complementary relationship between smoking and drinking, thereby reducing cigarette consumption. These results indicate that not only formal rules but also tacitly formed informal norms are effective deterrents to smoking.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The effects of the social norm on cigarette consumption: evidence from Japan using panel data|
|Keywords:||Smoking behavior, Social norm|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I12 - Health Production
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology > Z10 - General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I10 - General
|Depositing User:||eiji yamamura|
|Date Deposited:||26. Aug 2008 08:01|
|Last Modified:||11. Feb 2013 16:55|
Asahi Shinbunsha. (2004) Minryoku: TODOFUKEN-BETSU MINRYOKU SOKUTEI SHIRYOSHU (CD-ROM edition), Asahi-Shinbunsha, Tokyo.
Arcidiacono, P., Sieg, H., and Sloan, F. (2007) Living rationally under the volcano? An empirical analysis of heavy drinking and smoking. International Economic Review , 48, 37-65.
Baltagi, B. (2005) Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, John Wiley and Sons.
Becker, G. (1996). Account for Tastes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Becker, G., and Murphy, K. (2000) Social Economics: Market Behavior in a Social Environment. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Brock, W.A., and Durlauf, S.N. (2001) Discrete choice with social interactions. Review of Economic Studies, 68, 235-260.
Chaloupka, F.J.(1991) Rational addictive behavior and cigarette smoking. Journal of Political Economy, 99, 722-742.
Coleman, J. S. (1990) Foundation of Social Theory. Harvard University Press.
Crane, J. (1991). The epidemic theory of ghettos and neighborhood effects on dropping out and teenage childbearing, American Journal of Sociology, 96(5), 1226-1259.
Dee, T.S. (1999). The complementarity of teen smoking behavior and drinking. Journal of Health Economics, 18, 769-793.
Evans, W.N., Oates, W.E., and Schwab, R.M. (1992). Measuring peer group effects: a study of teenage behavior. Journal of Political Economy, 100(5), 966-991.
Evans, W.N., and Farrelly, M.C. (1999). Montgomery, E. Do workplace smoking bans reduce smoking?. American Economic Review, 89(4), 727-748.
Funk, P. (2005) Government action, social norms, and criminal behavior. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 161, 522-35.
Gottlieb, N.H., Eriksen,M.P., Lovato, C.Y., Weinstein, R.P., and Green, L.W. (1990). Impact of a restrictive work site smoking policy on smoking behavior, attitudes, and norms. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 32(1), 16-23.
Gaviria, A., and Rapahel,S. (2001). School-based peer effects and juvenile behavior. Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(2), 257-268.
Glaeser, E. L, Sacerdote, B., and Scheinkman, J.A. (1996). Crime and social interaction. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111(2), 507-548.
Gruber, J., Sen, A., and Stabile, M. (2003). Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: The sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada. Journal of Health Economics, 22, 821-841.
Haden, K. (1990). The demand for cigarettes in Japan. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 72(2), 446-450.
Huck, S., and Kosfeld, M. (2007). The dynamics of neighbourhood watch and norm enforcement. Economic Journal, 117, 270-286.
Kim, S., and Seldon, B.J. (2004) The demand for cigarettes in the republic of Korea and implication for Government policy to lower cigarette consumption. Contemporary Economic Policy, 22(2), 299-308.
Luo, F., Abdel-Ghany, M., and Ogawa, I. (2003). Cigarette smoking in Japan: examination of myoptic and rational models of addictive behavior. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 24(3), 305-317.
Manski, C.F. (1993). Identification of endogenous social effects: the reflection problem. Review of Economic Studies, 60, 531-542.
Posner, R. A., and Rasmusen, E.(1999). Creating and enforcing norms, with special reference to sanction. International Review of Law and Economics, 19, 369-82.
Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. A Touchstone Book.
Powell, L.M., Tauras, J.A., and Ross, H. (2005). The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior. Journal of Health Economics, 24, 950-968.
World Bank. (1999). Economics of Tobacoo Control, Countrry Data Online document available at www. worldbank. Org/tobacco/ brieflist_db_print.asp.
Yorozu, I., and Zhou, Y.(2002). The demand of cigarettes in Japan: Impact of information dissemination on cigarette consumption. Contemporary Economic Policy, 20(1), 72-82.
Yuanliang, B., and Zongyi, Z.(2005). Aggregate cigarette demand and regional differences in China. Applied Economics, 37, 2523-2528.