Ramos, Maria Priscila (2007): Politique Commerciale, Qualité et Environnement: une Application aux Négociations Commerciales entre l’Union Européenne et le Mercosur.
Download (1666Kb) | Preview
The European Union and Mercosur have started negotiations in 1995 with the signature of the “EU-Mercosur Interregional Framework Co-operation Agreement”. In spite of sixteen round of negotiations and a propitious textbook for trade relationships (complementary intra and inter-sectoral, historical links, common culture, languages and tastes), they have not managed to achieve a successful bilateral trade agreement, and only political and co-operation chapters have experienced major progresses. Many reasons, such as the interdependence between the bilateral and multilateral negotiations or their conflict-laden issues in agricultural liberalization, may explain why these negotiations have been stalled. Each chapter of this dissertation addresses one important question linked to the EUMercosur negotiations. The first chapter analyzes the consequences of a EU-Mercosur agreement under different baselines (Venezuela accession to Mercosur and plausible outcomes of the Doha Round) using the MIRAGE CGE dynamic model. The second chapter presents a methodological contribution for tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) modeling in a CGE framework and highlights the possible biases linked to the lack of TRQ mechanisms. Chapter 3 addresses the question of the typical Alchian-Allen effect by introducing complex policy instruments (TRQs, composite tariffs) used in European agricultural protection. The last chapter analyze the rationale for large importing and exporting countries (environmental and welfare impacts) to negotiate a selective liberalization for Environmentally Preferable Products (EPPs), which could represent a rewarding niche market for exporters in the Mercosur.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Politique Commerciale, Qualité et Environnement: une Application aux Négociations Commerciales entre l’Union Européenne et le Mercosur.|
|English Title:||Trade Policy, Quality and the Environment: an application to Trade negotiations between the European Union and the Mercosur|
|Keywords:||European Union, Mercosur, Preferential Trade Agreement, Tariff-rate quotas, Quality upgrading, Environmentally Preferable Products|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F13 - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F18 - Trade and Environment
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C6 - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling > C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q18 - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
|Depositing User:||Maria Priscila Ramos|
|Date Deposited:||11. Jan 2009 10:58|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 19:24|
Abbott, Philip C. (2002) ‘Tariff Rate Quotas: Failed Market Access Instruments?’ European Review of Agricultural Economics 29(1), 109–130.
Alavi, Rokiah (2007) ‘An Overview of Key Markets, Tariffs and Non-tariff Measures on Asian Exports of Select Environmental Goods.’ Issue Paper 4, ICTSD, March.
Alchian, Armen, and William R. Allen (1983) Exchange and Production: Competition, Coordination and Control, 3th edition ed. (Wadsworth).
Anderson, James (1991) ‘The Coeffcient of Trade Utilization: The Cheese Case.’ In Empirical Studies of Commercial Trade, ed. Robert Baldwin (National Bureau of Economic Research) chapter 8, pp. 221–243.
Anderson, James E. (1985) ‘The Relative Inefficiency of Quotas: The Cheese Case.’ TheAmerican Economic Review 75(1), 178–190. Anderson, James E. (1988) The Relative Inefficiency of Quota (MIT press).
Anderson, K. (1992) ‘The Standard Welfare Economics of Policies Affecting Trade and the Environment.’ The Greening of World Trade Issues pp. 25–48.
Aw, Bee, and Mark Roberts (1986) ‘Measuring quality change in quotaconstrained import markets.’ Journal of International Economics 21(1), 45–60.
Bauman, Y. (2004) ‘Shipping the Good Apples Out: A New Perspective.’ Economic Inquiry 42(3), 534–536.
Bchir, M.H., Y. Decreux, and J.L. Guerin (2003) ‘Accord de libre-echange entre l’Union europeenne et le Mercosur: une etude avec le modele MIRAGE.’ Economie Internationale pp. 77–108.
Bchir, M.H., Y. Decreux, J.L. Guérin, and S. Jean (2002) ‘MIRAGE, a Computable General Equilibrium Model for Trade Policy Analysis.’ CEPII, Document de travail.
Beghin, John, David Roland-Holst, and Dominique van der Mensbrugghe (1994) ‘Trade and Pollution linkages: piecemeal reform and optimal intervention.’ Technical Report 99, OCDE, October.
Berrettoni, D., and M. Cicowiez (2002) ‘Las Cuotas Arancelarias de la Union Europea: Un Analisis de Equilibrio General Computado.’ Asociaci´on Argentina de Economia Politica.
Bhagwati, J. (1990) ‘The Theory of Political Economy.’ Economic Policy, and Foreign Investment, in: Maurice Scott and Deepak Lal (eds.), Public Policy and Economic Development: Essays in Honour of Ian Little. Oxford: Clarendon Press pp. 217–230.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1991) The world trading system at risk (Harvester Wheatsheaf).
Bhagwati, J.N., Columbia University, and Department of Economics (1994) Threats to the World Trading System: Income Distribution and the Selfish Hegemon (Columbia University, Department of Economics).
Boorstein, Randi, and Robert C. Feenstra (1991) ‘Quality Upgrading and Its Welfare Cost in U.S. Steel Imports, 1969-74.’ International trade and trade policy pp. 167–186.
Borcherding, Thomas E., and Eugene Silberberg (1978) ‘Shipping the Good Apples Out: The Alchian and Allen Theorem Reconsidered.’ Journal of Political Economy 86(1), 131–138.
Bou¨et, A., D. Laborde, S. Tarascou, and A. Yapaudjian-Thibaut (2003) ‘The Costs of the FTAA for the European Union with and without an Agreement with MERCOSUR.’ Chaire MERCOSUR de Sciences Po pp. 1–32.
Bouët, A., L. Fontagné, M. Mimouni, and X. Pichot (2002) ‘MAcMaps: une mesure bilatérale et désagrégée de l'accès au marché.’ Economie internationale.
Bouët, A., Y. Decreux, L. Fontagné, S. Jean, and D. Laborde (2004) ‘A Consistent, ad valorem Equivalent Measure of Applied Protection Across the World: The MAcMap-HS6 Database.’ CEPII Working Paper 20, 1–40.
Bridges (2006) ‘Lamy says ’Magic Number’ 20, as Ministers arrive in Geneva.’ weekly trade news digest Volume 10, Number 23, ICTSD, June 28th.
Bureau, J.C., L. Fulponi, and L. Salvatici (2000) Comparing EU and US Trade Liberalisation under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture.’ European Review of Agricultural Economics 27(3), 1–22.
Bureau, Jean-Christophe, and Stefan Tangermann (2000) ‘Tariff Rate Quotas in the EU.’ Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 29(1), 70–80.
Bureau, Jean-Christophe, Sophie Drogu´e, and Maria Priscila Ramos (2006) ‘EU-Mercosur Bilateral Trade Negotiations: Competitiveness of the Mercosur Agricultural Sector and Competition for EU Products.’ Technical Report, French Agricultural Ministry.
Carpentier, Chantal Line, Kevin P. Gallagher, and Scott Vaughan (2005) ‘Environmental Goods and Services in the World Trade Organization.’ Journal of Environment and Development 14(2), 225–251.
Coelho, Allexandro Mori, Maria Lucia Padua Lima, Samir Cury, and SergioGoldbaum (2007) ‘Impacts of the accession of Venezuela to Mercosur: an applied general equilibrium evaluation.’ Escola de Sao Paulo, Fundaçao Getulio Vargas.
Copeland, Brian R. (1996) ‘Pollution Content Tariffs, Environmental Rent Shifting, and the Control of Cross-Border Pollution.’ Journal of International Economics 40(3-4), 459–476.
Crozet, Matthieu, and Helene Erkel-Rousse (2004) ‘Trade Performances, Product Quality Perceptions, and the Estimation of Trade Price Elasticities.’ Review of International Economics 12(1), 108–129.
De Gorter, H., and E. Kliauga (2006) ‘Reducing Tariffs versus Expanding Tariff Rate Quotas.’ Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda.
De Melo, J., and A. Panagariya (1993) New Dimensions in Regional Integration (Cambridge University Press).
Decreux, Yvan, and Hugo Valin (2007) ‘Updated Version of the Model for Trade Policy Analysis. Focus on Agriculture and Dynamics.’ WP 2007-07, CEPII, July.
DeRosa, D.A. (1998) Regional Integration Arrangements: Static Economic Theory, Quantitative Findings, and Policy Guidelines (World Bank).
Diakosavvas, D. (2001) The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture: An Evaluation of Its Implementation in OECD Countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development).
Dimaranan, Betina V., ed. (2006) Global Trade, Assistance, and Production: The GTAP 6 Data Base (Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.).
EC (2006) ‘Does the Trade Talk Match the Trade Walk?’ Monitoring AgriTrade Policy 3-06, General for Agriculture and Rural Development, European Commission. pp 1-17.
Elbehri, Aziz, and K.R. Pearson (2000) ‘Implementing Tariff Rate Quotas in GTAP using GEMPACK.’ Technical Paper 19, GTAP, December.
Ethier, W.J. (1998a) ‘The New Regionalism.’ The Economic Journal 108(449), 1149–1161.
Ethier, W.J. (1998b) ‘Regionalism in a Multilateral World.’ Journal of Political Economy 106(6), 1214.
Falvey, Rodney E. (1979) ‘The Composition of Trade within Importrestricted Product Categories.’ Journal of Political Economy 87(5), 1105–1114.
Feenstra, R.C. (1995) Handbook of International Economics Vol. 3 (Elsevier Amsterdam).
Feenstra, Robert C. (1987) ‘Voluntary Export Restraint in U.S. Autos, 1980-81: Quality, Employment, and Welfare Effects.’ International trade: Selected readings pp. 203–230.
Flores, R. (2006) ‘Integration Options for MERCOSUL-An Investigation using the AMIDA Model.’ The American University of Paris.
Fontagné, Lionel, David Laborde, and Cristina Mitaritonna (2007) ‘Why initiatives towards LDCs should be consolidated in DDA?’ In 'Assessing the Foundations of Global Economics Analysis”. The 10th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis’ Purdue University West Lafayette, USA.
Gaulier, G., and S. Zignago (2004) ‘Notes on BACI (Analytical Database of International Trade): 1995-2002 Version.’ Working Paper, CEPII, March.
Giordano, P (2003) The External Dimension of MERCOSUR: Prospects for North-South Integration with the European Union (Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean; Inter-American Development Bank, Integration and Regional Programs Dept., Integration, Trade and Hemispheric Issues Division).
Gozlan, E., and P. Ramos (2006) ‘Trade Liberalization in Environmentally Preferable Products: an Example with imports of conventional vs. organic products.’ In ‘8th European Trade Study Group Conference’.
Grant, J.H., T.W. Hertel, and T. F. Rutherford (2006) ‘Extending General Equilibrium to the Tariff Line: US Dairy in the Doha Development Agenda.’ In ‘International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium, Winter conference’ St.Petersbourg, FL.
Hallak, Juan Carlos (2006) ‘Product Quality and the Direction of Trade.’ Journal of International Economics 68(1), 238–265.
Hamwey, Robert M. (2005) ‘Environmental Goods: Where Do the Dynamic Trade Opportunities for Developing Countries Lie ?’ Technical Report, Cen2eco (Center for Economic and Ecological Studies) working paper, Geneva, Switzerland, December.
Harrison, W.J., and KR Pearson (1996) ‘Computing solutions for large general equilibrium models using GEMPACK.’ Computational Economics 9(2), 83–127.
Hertel, Thomas, David Hummels, Maros Ivanic, and Roman Keeney (2004) ‘How Confident Can We Be in CGE-Based Assessments of Free Trade Agreements?’ National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, NBER Working Pa- pers: 10477 pp.
Hertel, T.W. (1997) Global Trade Analysis: modeling and applications (Cambridge University Press).
Hertel, T.W. (1999) ‘Applied General Equilibrium Analysis of Agricultural and Resource Policies.’ Staff Paper pp. 99–2
Howse, Robert, and Petrus B. van Bork (2005) ‘Options for the Liberalisation of Trade in Environmental Goods in the Doha Round.’ Issue Paper 2, ICTSD, September.
Hranaiova, J., H. de Gorter, and J. Falk (2006) ‘The Economics of Administering Import Quotas with Licenses-on-Demand in Agriculture.’ American Journal of Agricultural Economics 88(2), 338–350.
Hummels, David, and Alexandre Skiba (2004) ‘Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of the Alchian-Allen Conjecture.’ Journal of Political Economy 112(6), 1384–1402.
ICTSD, and IISD (2005) ‘Doha Round Briefing Series: Trade and Environment.’ Technical Report, ICTSD, November.
Ingco, M.D. (1996) ‘Tariffication in the Uruguay Round: How Much Liberalization?’ The World Economy 19(4), 425–47.
Jean, S., D. Laborde, and W. Martin (2005) ‘Sensitive Products: Selection and Implications for Agricultural Trade Negotiations.’ Conference on Global Economic Analysis, June, Lubeck.
Johnson, H.G. (1965) ‘An Economic Theory of Protectionism, Tariff Bargaining, and the Formation of Customs Unions.’ The Journal of Political Economy 73(3), 256–283.
Just, R., D. Hueth, and A. Schmidt (1982) Applied Welfare Economics (Prentice-Hall: New York).
Kraus, C. (2000) Import Tariffs as Environmental Policy Instruments (Kluwer Academic Publishers).
Krishna, P. (1994) Necessarily Welfare-enhancing Customs Unions with Industrialization Constraints: A Proof of the Cooper-Massell-Johnson-Bhagwati Conjecture (Columbia University, Dept. of Economics).
Krutilla, K. (1991) ‘Environmental Regulation in an Open Economy.’ Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 20, 127–142.
Krutilla, Kerry (1999) ‘Partial equilibrium models of trade and the environment.’ In Handbook of environmental and resource economics, ed. J. van den Bergh Edward Elgar pp. 404–415.
Laborde, David, and Alex Gohin (2006) ‘Simulating trade policy reforms at the detailed level: some practical solutions.’ In 9th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis. Addis Ababa. Ethiopia, ed. GTAP and Purdue University number 2108. In ‘.’ GTAP and Purdue University.
Laens, S., and M.I. Terra (2006) ‘La agenda externa del Mercosur:: el impacto de negociaciones con el ALCA, la UE y la OMC.’ Technical Report.
Lavoie, N. (2005) ‘Price Discrimination in the Context of Vertical Differentiation: An Application to Canadian Wheat Exports.’ American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87(4), 835–854.
LeClair, Mark S., and Dina Franceschi (2006) ‘Externalities in international trade: The case for differential tariffs.’ Ecological Economics 58(3), 462–472.
Levy, P.I. (1997) ‘A Political-Economic Analysis of Free-Trade Agreements.’ The American Economic Review 87(4), 506–519.
Lips, M., and P. Rieder (2002) ‘Aggregation of Tariff-Rate Quotas within GTAP Sectors.’ 5th Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Taipei, Taiwan, June pp. 5–7.
Markusen, James R. (1975) ‘International externalities and optimal tax structures.’ Journal of International Economics 5(1), 15–29.
Martin, Will, Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, and Vlad Manole (2003) ‘Is the Devil in the Details?: Assessing the Welfare Implications of Agricultural and Non Agricultural Trade Reforms.’ Working Paper, World Bank, May.
Monteagudo, J., and M. Watanuki (2001) ‘Regional Trade Agreements for MERCOSUR: the FTAA and the FTA with the European Union.’ Conference on Impacts of Trade Liberalization Agreements on Latin America and the Caribbean.
Olarreaga, Marcelo, and Caglar Ozden (2005) ‘AGOA and Apparel: Who Captures the Tariff Rent in the Presence of Preferential Market Access?’ World Economy 28(1), 63–77.
Panagariya, A. (1999) Regionalism in Trade Policy: essays on preferential trading (World Scientific).
Ramos, Maria Priscila, Luca Salvatici, and Jean-Christophe Bureau (2006) ‘Shipping The Good Beef Out: EU Trade Liberalization to Mercosur Exports.’ Working Paper TRADEAG.
Rauscher, M. (1991) ‘Foreign trade and the environment.’ Economics and the Environment: The International Dimension (1995) ‘Environmental legislation as a tool of trade policy.’ Environmental economics pp. 73–90.
Rauscher, Michael (1999) Handbook of environmental and resource economics.
Rodriguez, C. A. (1979) ‘The quality of imports and the differential welfare effects of tariffs, quotas, and quality controls as protective devices.’ Canadian Journal of Economics XII(3), 439–449.
Rutherford, Thomas F. (1995) ‘Extension of GAMS for complementarity problems arising in applied economic analysis.’ Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 19(8), 1299–1324.
Singh, Sandeep (2004) ‘Trade Preferences and Growth of Environmental Industry: Issues and Implications for India.’ Indian Journal of Economics and Business 3(2), 289–313.
Skully, David (1999) ‘Economics of TRQ Administration. International Agricultural.’ Working Paper 99-6, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
Soloaga, Isidro (1999) ‘The Treatment of Non-Essential Inputs in a Cobb-Douglas Technology: An Application to Mexican Rural Household-Level Data.’ SSRN e-Library.
Steenblik, R. (2005) ‘Liberalising Trade in Environmental Goods: Some Practical Considerations.’ Trade and Environment Working Paper 2005-05, OECD.
Umbeck, J. (1980) ‘Shipping the Good Apples Out: Some Ambiguities in the Interpretation of Fixed Charge.’ The Journal of Political Economy 88(1), 199–208.
van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., ed. (1999) Handbook of Environmental and Resource Economics (Edward Elgar) van der Mensbrugghe, D. (2001) ‘Linkage Technical Reference Document.’ Economic Policy and Prospects Group, The World Bank, Processed, October.
Van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, John Beghin, and Don Mitchell (2003) ‘Modeling Tariff Rate Quotas in a Global Context: The case of Sugar Markets in OECD countries.’ Working Paper 03-WP 343, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-1070, September.
Vikhlyaev, Alexey (2004) ‘Environmental Goods and Services: Defining Negotiations or Negotiating Definitions?’ Journal of World Trade 38(1), 93–122.
Viner, J. (1950) ‘The Customs Union Issue.’ New York.
Whalley, John (1998) ‘The Interface between Environmental and Trade Policies.’ Trade and the environment: Economic, legal and policy perspectives pp. 72–81.
WTO (2005) ‘SYNTHESIS OF SUBMISSIONS ON ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS.’ Technical Report TN/TE/W/63, World Trade Organization Committee on Trade and Environment, November.