Kumar, Santosh (2009): Fertility and birth spacing consequences of childhood immunization program: Evidence from India.
This is the latest version of this item.
Download (210kB) | Preview
What are the effects of childhood immunization program (UIP) on women's fertility and birth spacing? I examine the effect of this immunization program on women's subsequent fertility and birth spacing by exploiting district-by-cohort variation in exposure to the program. The results indicate that exposure of the first-born child to the immunization program reduces the likelihood of subsequent and cumulative fertility of women and increases the birth intervals between first and second births. The effects are more pronounced in urban areas. The significant program effect on fertility and birth intervals can be explained in terms of reduction in child mortality due to the immunization program. Kumar (2009) finds that UIP has a significant and negative effect on infant and under-five mortality.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Fertility and birth spacing consequences of childhood immunization program: Evidence from India|
|English Title:||Fertility and Birth Spacing Consequences of Childhood Immunization Program: Evidence from India|
|Keywords:||Immunization, Mortality, Fertility, India.|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I10 - General
|Depositing User:||Santosh Kumar|
|Date Deposited:||24. Jun 2011 01:18|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 00:30|
Annual Report. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), 1987-88, Government of India.
Balakrishnan, T. R. Effects of Child Mortality on Subsequent Fertility of Women in Some Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Central Latin American Countries."Population Stud- ies, 1978, 32, pp. 135-145.
Barro, R. J. and Becker, G. S. Fertility Choice in a Model of Economic Growth." Econometrica, 1989, 57, pp. 481-501.
Barro, R. J. and Becker, G. S. A Reformulation of the Economic Theory of Fertility." Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1988, 103, pp. 1-25.
Bhalotra, Sonia and Soest Arthur V. Birth-Spacing, Fertility and Neonatal Mortality In India: Dynamics, Frailty and Fecundity." Journal of Econometrics, 2008, 143(2), pp. 274-290.
Bloom, David E.; Canning, David and Weston, Mark. The Value of Vaccination."World Economics, 2005, 6(3), July-Sep.
Boldrin, Michele and Jones Larry E. Mortality, Fertility and Saving in a Malthusian Economy ." Review of Economic Dynamics, 2002, Vol. 5, pp. 775-814.
Chowdhary, A.K.M.A.; Khan, A. R. and Chen, L.C. The Effect of Child Mortality on Subsequent Fertility in Pakistan and Bangladesh." Population Studies, 1976, 2, pp. 249-261.
Cigno, A. Fertility Decisions When Infant Survival is Endogenous." Journal of Population Economics, 1998, 11, pp. 21-28.
Dahan, M. and Tsiddon, D. Demographic Transition, Income Distribution, and Economic Growth." Journal of Economic Growth, 1998, 3, pp. 29-52.
Dyson, T. and Murphy, M. The Onset of Fertility Transition." Population Development Review, 1985, 11, pp. 399-440.
Fernt'andez-Villaverde. Was malthus Right? Economic Growth and Population Dynamics." Unpublished Manuscript, University of Pennsylvania, 2001.
Frankenberg, E. The Relationship Between Infant and Child Mortality and Subsequent Fertility in Indonesia, 1971-1991, in M. Montgomery and B. Cohen (eds.), From Death to Birth: Mortality Decline and Reproductive Change, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington DC." , 1998, pp. 254-315.
Gribble, J. N. Birth Intervals, Gestational Age and Low Birth Weight: Are the Relationships Confounded." Population Studies, 1993, 47, pp. 133-146.
Hobcraft, J. Fertility Patterns and Child Survival: A Comparative Analysis." Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 1992, 33, pp. 1-31.
Hobcraft, J.; McDonald, J.W. and Rutstein S. O. Child Spacing Eects on Infant and Early Child Mortality." Population Index, 1983, 49, pp. 585-618.
Kalemli-Ozcan, S. A Stochastic Model of Mortality, Fertility, and Human Capital Investment." Journal of Development Economics, 2003, Vol. 70, pp. 103-118.
Kane, M. and Lasher, H. The Case for Childhood Immunization."Occasional Paper No. 5, Children's Vaccine Program at Path, Seattle, WA, 2002.
Kumar, Santosh. Childhood Immunization, Mortality and Human Capital Accumulation: Micro-Evidence from India." University of Houston, Ph.D. Thesis, 2009.
LeGrand, T. K. and Phillips, J. F. The Effects of Fertility on Infant and Child Mortality: Evidence from Matlab in Rural Bangladesh."Population Studies, 1996, 50(1), pp. 51- 68. Miller, J. E. Birth Order, Interpregnancy Interval and Birth Outcomes Among Filipino Infants." Paper No. 91-13, Office of Population Research, 1991, 50(1), Princeton University.
Mincer, J. \Market Prices, Opportunity Costs and Income Eects." in Measurement in Economics, (eds.) C. Christ, et al. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1963.
Mofftt, R. Causal Analysis in Population Research: An Economist's Perspective."Mimeograph, John Hopkins University, july, 2003.
O'Hara, D. J. Microeconomic Aspects of the Demographic Transition." Journal of Political Economy, 1975, 83, pp. 1203-1216.
Olsen, R. J. Estimating the Effect of Child Mortality on the Number of Births." Demography, 1980, 17, pp. 429-443.
Olsen, R. J. and Wolpin, K.I. The Impact of Exogenous Child Mortality on Fertility: A Waiting Time Regression with Dyanamic Regressors".Econometrica, 1983, 51, pp. 731-749.
Palloni, Alberto and Millman, S. Effects of Interbirth Intervals and Breastfeeding on Infant and Early Childhood Mortality." Population Studies,1986, Vol. 40, No.2, pp. 215-36.
Palloni, Alberto and Rafalimanana Hantamala. The Effects of Infant Mortality on Fertility Revisited: New Evidence from Latin America." Demography,1999, Vol. 36, No.1, pp. 41-58.
Palloni, Alberto and Tienda, M. The Effects of Breastfeeding and Pace of Childbearing on Mortality at Early Ages." Demography,1986, Vol. 23, pp. 31-52.
Pebley, A. R. and Stupp, P. W. Reproductive Patterns and Child Mortality in Guatemala." Demography,1987, Vol. 24, pp. 43-60.
Rutstein, S. O. The Influence of Child Mortality on Fertility in Taiwan." Studies in Family Planning, 1974, 5, pp. 182-188.
Sah, R. K. The Effect of Child Mortality Changes on Fertility Choice and Parental Welfare." Journal of Political Economy, 1991, 99, pp. 582-606.
Schultz, T. P. An Economic Model of Family Planning and Fertility." American Economic Review,1969, Vol. 77, pp. 153-180.
Schultz, T. P. Economics of Population, Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Publishers."1981.
Schultz, T. P. Fertility Transition: Economic Explanations.", International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, (eds.) N. J. Smelser and P.B. Baltes,Pergamon, Oxford, 2002, pp. 5578-5584.
Zenger, E. Siblings' Neonatal Mortality Risks and Birth Spacing in Bangladesh." Demography,1993, Vol. 30(3), pp. 477-488.
Available Versions of this Item
Fertility and Birth Spacing Consequences of Childhood Immunization Program: Evidence from India. (deposited 01. Dec 2010 12:48)
- Fertility and birth spacing consequences of childhood immunization program: Evidence from India. (deposited 24. Jun 2011 01:18) [Currently Displayed]