Ahmad, Munir and Chaudhry, Ghulam Mustafa and Iqbal, Muhammad (2002): Wheat Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability: A Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis. Published in: The Pakistan Development Review , Vol. 4, No. 41 (2002): pp. 643-663.
Download (198Kb) | Preview
This paper uses the farm-level survey data to estimate the stochastic frontier production function incorporating inefficiency effects. Sufficient evidence of positive relationship between wheat productivity and higher and balanced use of fertiliser nutrients was present. The productivity showed an inverse relationship with the proportionate farm area allocated to rice production and illustrated no association with the proportion of farm area under cotton. The average technical efficiency at wheat farms was about 68 percent. An inverse relationship was observed between technical efficiency and farm size. The farmers with greater access to credit and located closer to the markets were found more efficient. The small farmers are not only producing at a lower level but are also operating relatively farther from the production frontier. The results also revealed that wheat growers in Punjab are comparatively more efficient than their counterparts in Sindh and NWFP.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||Pakistan Institute of Development Economics|
|Original Title:||Wheat Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability: A Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis|
|Keywords:||stochastic frontier production function; technical efficiency; small farmer; Pakistan; productivity|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q10 - General
|Depositing User:||Muhammad Iqbal|
|Date Deposited:||22. Jun 2007|
|Last Modified:||19. Mar 2014 08:04|
Ahmad, Bashir, Munir Ahmad, and Z. Ahmad Gill (1998) Restoration of Soil Health for Achieving Sustainable Growth in Agriculture. The Pakistan Development Review 37:4, 997–1015. Ahmad, Munir (2001) Agricultural Productivity Growth Differentials in Punjab, Pakistan: A District-Level Analysis. The Pakistan Development Review 40:1, 1–25. Ahmad, Munir, and Azkar Ahmad (1998) An Analysis of the Sources of Wheat Output Growth in the Barani Area of the Punjab. The Pakistan Development Review 37:3, 231–249. Ahmad, Munir, M. G. Chaudhry, and G. M. Chaudhry (2000) Some Non-price Explanatory Variables in Fertiliser Demand: The Case of Irrigated Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 39:4, 477–486. Ahmad, Munir, and S. K. Qureshi (1999) Recent Evidence on Farm Size and Hand Productivity: Implications for Public Policy. The Pakistan Development Review 38:4, 1135–1153. Ashraf, M. (1984-85) Daska Rice Yield Optimisation Project: First Year Report. Rice Programme, NARC (PARC), Islamabad. Aslam, M., A. Majid, P. R. Hobbs, N. I. Hashmi, and D. Byerlee (1989) Wheat in the Rice-Wheat Cropping System of the Punjab: A Synthesis of On-farm Research Results 1984-8. Islamabad: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre. (PARC/CIMMYT Paper No.89-3.) Azhar, R. (1991) Education and Technical Efficiency During the Green Revolution in Pakistan. Economic Development and Cultural Change 56, 651–665. Battese, G. E., and S. S. Broca (1997) Functional Forms of Stochastic Frontier Production Functions and Models for Technical Efficiency Effects: A Comparative Study for Wheat Farmers in Pakistan. Journal of Productivity Analysis 8, 395–414. Battese, G. E., S. J. Malik, and M. A. Gill (1996) An Investigation of Technical Inefficiencies of Production of Wheat Farmers in Four Districts of Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Economics 47, 37–49. Battese, G. E., S. J. Malik, and S. S. Broca (1993) Production Functions for Wheat Farmers in Selected District of Pakistan: An Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function with Time-Varying Inefficiency Effects. The Pakistan Development Review 32, 233–268. Battese, G. E., and T. J. Coelli (1995) A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in A Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data. Empirical Economics 20, 325–332. Butt, M. S. (1984) Education and Farm Productivity in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics 3, 65–82. Byerlee, D. (1992) Technical Change, Productivity, and Sustainability in Irrigated Cropping Systems of South Asia: Emerging Issues in the Post-Green Revolution Era. Journal of International Development 4:5, 477–496. Byerlee, D., P. R. Hobbs, B. R. Khan, A. Majid, M. R. Khan, and N. I. Hashmi (1986) Increasing Wheat Productivity in the Context of Pakistan’s Irrigated Cropping Systems: A View from the Farmers’ Field. Islamabad: PARC/CIMMYT Collaborative Programme. (PARC/CIMMYT Paper 86-7.) Byerlee, D., and A. Siddiq (1994) Has the Green Revolution Been Sustained? The Quantitative Impact of the Seed-Fertiliser Revolution in Pakistan Revisited. World Development 22:9, 1345–1361. Cassman, K. G., and P. L. Pingali (1993) Extrapolating Trends from Long-term Experiments to Farmers Fields: The Case of Irrigated Rice Systems in Asia. In. proceedings of the working conference on “Measuring Sustainability Using Long-Term Experiments”. Rothamsted Experimental Station, 28-30 April. Chhibber, A. (1988) Raising Agricultural Output: Price and Non-price Factors. Finance and Development June. 44–47. Drysdale, P., K. P. Kalirajan, and S. Zahao (1995) The Impact of Economic Reform on Technical Efficiency: A Suggested Method of Measurement. Australia-Japan Research Centre, Australian National University. (Pacific Economic Papers No. 239.) Fan, S. (1991) Effects of Technological Change and Institutional Reform on Production Growth in Chinese Agriculture. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73:2, 266–275. FAO (Various Issues) Food Balance Sheet. http://apps.fao.org/lim500/nph-wrap.pl? Food Balance Sheet and Domain=Food Balance Sheet and Language=English. FAO and IFA (International Fertiliser Industry Association) (1999) Fertiliser Strategies. Rom: FAO. Feder, G., L. J. Lau, and R. H. Slade (1987) Does Agricultural Extension Pay? The Training and Visit System in Northwest India. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 69, 677–686. Ghura, D., and R. E. Just (1992) Education, Infrastructure and Instability in East African Agriculture: Implications for Structural Adjustment Programmes. Finance and Economic Development 1:1, 85–105. Hussain, M. S. (1999) An Analysis of the Efficiency of Cotton Farmers in the Punjab Province in Pakistan. A Ph.D. Thesis. University of New England, Armidale, Australia. Hussain, S. S. (1989) Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Northern Pakistan: Estimation, Causes and Policy Implications. A Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA. Iqbal, M., and M. Azeem Khan (2001) Determinants of Higher Wheat Productivity in Irrigated Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 40: 4, 753–766. Jamison, D. T., and P. R. Moock (1984) Farmer Education and Farmer Efficiency in Nepal: The Role of Schooling, Extension Service, and Cognitive Skills. World Development 12, 67–86. Jha, D., and B. Hojjati (1993) Fertiliser Use on Small Holder Farms in Eastern Province. Zambia. Washington, D.C.: Internal Food Policy Research Institute. Kalirajan, K. P., M. B. Obwona, and S. Zahao (1996) A Decomposition of Total Factor Productivity Growth: The Case of Chinese Agricultural Growth Before and After Reforms. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78:3, 331–338. Lin, J. Y. (1992) Rural Reform and Agricultural Growth in China. American Economic Review 82:1, 34–51. NFDC (National Fertiliser Development Centre) (2000) Fertiliser Use at Farm Level in Pakistan. Planning and Development Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.