Fu, Shihe (2008): Sexual orientation and neighborhood quality: Do same-sex couples make better communities?
Download (182Kb) | Preview
This study provides an initial empirical analysis on identifying the general relationship between housing values and the spatial distribution of same-sex couples across the U.S. The paper uses the 1990 and 2000 census 5% Public Use Microdata Samples and introduces the gay index into the social-amenity-based hedonic housing models. The results show significant correlation between the spatial concentration of same-sex couples and housing values; furthermore, housing values are higher in a city where the proportion of same-sex couples was higher a decade ago, suggesting that same-sex couples make better communities.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Sexual orientation and neighborhood quality: Do same-sex couples make better communities?|
|Keywords:||Same-sex couples, Hedonic housing model, Gentrification, Gay index|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R3 - Real Estate Markets, Production Analysis, and Firm Location > R31 - Housing Supply and Markets
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R1 - General Regional Economics > R14 - Land Use Patterns
|Depositing User:||Shihe Fu|
|Date Deposited:||12. Mar 2008 01:42|
|Last Modified:||07. Jan 2014 23:18|
 S. Adler, J. Brenner, Gender and space: Lesbians and gay men in the city, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 16 (1992) 24-34.  A. Alesina, R. Baqir, W. Easterly, Public goods and ethnic divisions, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (1999) 1243-1284.  S. Allegretto, M. Arthur, An empirical analysis of homosexual/heterosexual male earnings di¤erentials: Unmarried and unequal? Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54 (2001) 631-648.  M.V.L. Badgett, M. Rogers, Missing same-sex couples in census 2000, Working Paper, Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, 2003.  G. Becker, A treatise on the family, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1981.  D. Black, G. Gates, S. Sanders, L. Taylor, Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources, Demography 37 (2000) 139-154.  D. Black, G. Gates, S. Sanders, L. Taylor, Why do gay men live in San Francisco? Journal of Urban Economics 51 (2002) 54-76.  D. Black, G. Gates, S. Sanders, L. Taylor, The earnings e¤ects of sexual orientation, Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56 (2003) 449-469.  D. Black, G. Gates, S. Sanders, L. Taylor, The measurement of same-sex unmarried couples in the 2000 U.S. Census, unpublished paper, 2006.  J. Blandford, The nexus of sexual orientation and gender in the determina- tion of earnings, Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56 (2003) 622-642.  J. Brueckner, S. Rosenthal, Gentri�cation and neighborhood housing cy- cles: Will American�s future downtown be rich? Working Paper, University of California, 2005. 38  C. Carpenter, New evidence on gay and lesbian household incomes, Con- temporary Economic Policy 22 (2004) 78-94.  M. Castells, The city and the grassroots, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1983.  M. Castells, K. A. Murphy, Culture identity and urban structure: The spatial organization of San Francisco�s gay community, in: N. Fainstein and S. Fainstein (Eds), Urban policy under capitalism, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, 1982, pp. 237-259.  J. Coleman, Social capital in the creation of human capital, The American Journal of Sociology 94 (1988), S95-S120.  C. E. Crimmins, How the homosexuals saved civilization: The true and heroic story of how gay men shaped the modern world, Putnam Pub Group, 2004.  R. Davidson, J. MacKinnon, Estimation and inference in econometrics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993.  D. DiPasquale, E. Glaeser, Incentives and social capital: Are homeowners better citizens? Journal of Urban Economics 45 (1999) 354-384.  W. Fellows, A passion to preserve: Gay men as keepers of culture, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 2004.  R. Florida, Bohemian and economic geography, Journal of Economic Ge- ography 2 (2002) 55-71.  R. Florida, Cities and the creative class, Routledge, New York, 2005.  R. Florida, C. Mellander, There goes the neighborhood: How and why bohemians, artists and gays e¤ect regional housing values, Working Paper, George Mason University, 2007. 39  S. Fu, What has been capitalized into property values: Human capital, social capital, or cultural capital? Working Paper CES-WP-05-25, U.S. Census Bureau Center for Economic Studies, 2005.  S. Fu, Smart café cities: Testing human capital externalities in the Boston metropolitan area, Journal of Urban Economics 61 (2007) 86-111.  G. Gates, J. Ost, The gay & lesbian atlas, The Urban Institute Press, Washington, D.C., 2004.  E. Glaeser, J. Gyourko, A. Saiz, Why is Manhattan so expensive? Regula- tion and the rise in house prices, NBER Working Paper 10124, 2003.  E. Glaeser, J. Gyourko, A. Saiz, Why have housing prices gone up? NBER Working Paper 11129, 2005.  E. Glaeser, J. Kolko, A. Saiz, Consumer city, Journal of Economic Geog- raphy 1 (2001) 27-50.  B. Godfrey, Neighborhoods in transition: The making of San Francisco�s ethnic and nonconformist communities, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988.  J. Kain, J. Quigley, Housing market discrimination, home-ownership, and savings behavior, American Economic Review 62 (1972) 263-277.  T. King, P. Mieszkowski, Racial discrimination, segregation, and the price of housing, Journal of Political Economy 81 (1973) 590-606.  M. Klawitter, Why aren�t more economists doing research on sexual orien- tation? Feminist Economics 4 (1998) 55-59.  L. Knopp, Gentri�cation and gay community development in a New Or- leans neighborhood, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, The University of Iowa, 1989. 40  L. Knopp, Gentri�cation and gay neighborhood formation in New Orleans: A case study, in: A. Gluckman and B. Reed (Eds), Homo economics, Rout- ledge, New York and London, 1997, pp. 45-63.  J. Kolko, The economics of gentri�cation, Working Paper, Department of Economics, Harvard University, 2006.  M. Levine, Gay ghetto, Journal of Homosexuality 4 (1979) 363-377.  G. Lewis, B. Seaman, Sexual orientation and demand for the arts, Social Science Quarterly 85 (2004) 523-538.  L. Lochner, Education, work, and crime: A human capital approach, NBER Working Paper 10478, 2004.  J. Moorehouse, M. Smith, The market for residential architecture: 19th century row houses in Boston�s South End, Journal of Urban Economics 35 (1994) 267-277.  M. Moss, Reinventing the central city as a place to live and work, Housing Policy Debate 8 (1997) 471-490.  S.O. Murray, American gay, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996.  J. Palen, B. London (Eds), Gentri�cation, displacement and neighborhood revitalization, State University of New York Press, New York, 1984.  R. Putnam, Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American commu- nity, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2000.  S. Ross, The continuing practice and impact of discrimination, Working Paper 2005-19, Department of Economics, University of Connecticut, 2005.  N. Smith, P. Williams (Eds), Gentri�cation of the city, Allen & Unwin, Boston, 1986.  C. Stack, 1974, All our kin, Harper & Row, New York, 1974. 41  J. Yinger, The black-white price di¤erential in housing: Some future evi- dence, Land Economics 54 (1978) 187-206. 4