Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Optimal financial inclusion

Ozili, Peterson K (2020): Optimal financial inclusion. Forthcoming in:


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This article reports the conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are provided to members of the population at a price that is affordable and that price is also economically sufficient to encourage providers of financial services to provide such financial services on a continual basis. Any level of financial inclusion that does not meet these conditions is sub-optimal. The consequence of sub-optimal levels of financial inclusion are reported and I show that maintaining a sub-optimal level of financial inclusion – which is common in many countries – is incentive-inefficient both for users and suppliers of basic financial services.

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