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Емпирично изследване на управлението на услугите на агроекосистемите в България

Bachev, Hrabrin and Ivanov, Bojidar and Mitova, Dilyana and Boevski, Ivan and Marinov, Petar and Sarov, Angel and Zvetkova, Daniela and Kostenarov, Krasimir and Vanev, Dimitar (2021): Емпирично изследване на управлението на услугите на агроекосистемите в България.

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Abstract

The study is a report from the second stage of the research project "Management of agro-ecosystem services", funded by the Agricultural Academy - https://maessbg.alle.bg The approach developed during the first stage for analysis, evaluation and improvement of the management system of the agro-ecosystem services in the country has been tested. A survey with agricultural producers identified the size and type of "produced" services of agro-ecosystems of different types, and the dominant forms, factors and efficiency of management of agro-ecosystem services. Primary micro-information was collected from managers of 162 "typical" farms of different legal type, size, production specialization, ecological and geographical location. The main agro-regions and basic agroecosystems (plain, mountainous, protected areas, non-favored areas, etc.) are covered, as well as 12 main specific agroecosystems and their agro-ecosystems - Western Stara Planina, Central Balkans, Danube Plain, Stara Planina, Northeast Fore-Balkans, Struma River Valley, Rhodopes, Pernik Basin, Radomir Field, Sredna Gora, Sub-Balkans, Thracian Lowland and Southeastern Bulgaria. By grouping and summarizing the collected primary information, the structure and volume of agro-ecosystem services in the country and in the main types of agro-ecosystems are identified - geographical, basic and specific ecosystems, subsectors of agricultural production, size and legal type of farming organization. Share of participating producers and degree of participation in storage and supply were used as proxy indicators for production volume of the respective types of holdings. The connection between the main characteristics of farm managers (gender, age, education, farming experience, etc.) and their knowledge and application of the concept of agro-ecosystem services has been established. The main domestic, market, contractual, collective, tripartite, etc. are identified. forms of management of agro-ecosystem services of different types in general and depending on the type of agro-ecosystem and the agricultural producer. An in-depth study of the predominant forms of management of basic agro-ecosystem services such as providing external access to the farm, biodiversity conservation, plant pollination, bioproduction, etc. has been established, and a link with specialization, location, etc. has been established. characteristics of holdings. The effectiveness of the various forms of management of agro-ecosystem services has been established by assessing the direct and additional costs associated with the supply and management of agro-ecosystem services, as well as the direct, additional and indirect effects of their supply. The main behavioral, economic, institutional, natural, etc. are identified. factors that stimulate or limit the "production" of agro-ecosystem services by farmers. The intentions of the agricultural producers related to the protection of ecosystems and ecosystem services in the near future have also been determined. An in-depth analysis of the development and efficiency of organic production as one of the main forms of supply of agro-ecosystem services by Bulgarian farms. A multifaceted analysis of soils has been made as part of Bulgaria's agri-environmental resource, on the example of rural areas in the South Central region. The possibilities for using the sludge from the wastewater treatment plants as a form of agro-eco-service in support of agriculture have been assessed. The use of the customer value category in the management of agro-ecosystem services is analyzed. Summarized conclusions and proposals for improving the approach to scientific analysis and guidelines for improving public policies and forms of public intervention, and individual, business and collective strategies and actions for effective management of agro-ecosystems and services of agro-ecosystems of different types have been prepared.

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