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Urban-rural differences in health outcomes in the United Republic of Tanzania

Ranjan, Harshali (2021): Urban-rural differences in health outcomes in the United Republic of Tanzania.

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Tanzania is a developing country with a steady increase in economic growth, wealth and urbanisation. The country reached an important milestone in July 2020 when it formally graduated from low-income to lower-middle-income country following two decades of sustained growth (World Bank, 2021b). While there has been a continuous increase in urban dwellers in recent years in Tanzania, 64.77 % of its population still resided outside cities in 2020 (World Bank, 2021a). Tanzania’s urban population is now projected to grow from less than 15 million people in 2012 to more than 60 million people by mid-century (Jaeger and Spiegel, 2017). However, this development has not been systematic and has been characterised by widespread informality, unequal economic growth and highly prevalent poverty. It is estimated that around 70% of the urban dwellers live in slum wards that are poorer than the surrounding rural areas (Msuya, 2021). As a result, health outcomes and access to healthcare services differ across the urban and rural geographies (Levira and Todd, 2017).

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