Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Childcare restrictions and gender gap in labor outcomes

Cervini, Maria and Silva, José I. (2023): Childcare restrictions and gender gap in labor outcomes.

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Persistent gender gaps exist in labor market outcomes. This study contributes to the literature by examining the gender gap effects of childcare restrictions. Specifically, not using professional childcare services due to issues like access, quality, or costs. Using a specialized module from the 2018 Spanish Labor Force Survey, we identify substantial gender gaps in labor force, employment, full-time employment and hours worked among parents facing childcare constraints. In contrast, parents without such restrictions experience much lower gender gaps. Working time flexibility helps to alleviate the gender gap in hours worked. Additionally, we explore the long-run consequences of extended work interruptions for childcare, revealing a significant decline in women's labor supply, employment rates and full-time share, particularly for career breaks lasting 5 years or more.

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