Hirnissa, M.T and Habibullah, M.S. and Baharom, A.H. (2008): Defense, Education and Health Expenditures in Selected Asian Countries.
Download (166kB) | Preview
This study explores the inter-relationship between military expenditure, education expenditure and health expenditure in eight selected Asian countries namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and South Korea. Autoregressive Distributed Lag-Restricted Error Correction Model (ARDL-RECM) procedure was utilized in the analysis. The empirical results suggest that, except for the case of Malaysia and Sri Lanka, whereby no meaningful interrelationship was detected between these three variables, the results for the rest of the countries are mixed, with differing granger causality being detected among these variables. The mixed results obtained in this study is an indicator of differing policy being implemented and will result in varying implication. Generally the error correction term is significant. Implying there is long-run relationship between defense spending, education and health expenditure.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Defense, Education and Health Expenditures in Selected Asian Countries|
|Keywords:||defense spending; health expenditure; education|
|Subjects:||E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E6 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook > E62 - Fiscal Policy
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H51 - Government Expenditures and Health
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H56 - National Security and War
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H52 - Government Expenditures and Education
|Depositing User:||Baharom Abdul Hamid|
|Date Deposited:||02. Feb 2009 14:14|
|Last Modified:||06. Apr 2015 15:32|
Al-Yousif,, Y.K. (2002) Defense spending and economic growth: Some empirical evidence from the Arab Gulf region, Defence and Peace Economics, 13(3), 187-197
Apostolakis, B.E. (1992) Warfare-welfare expenditure substitutions in Latin America, 1953-87. Journal of Peace Research, 29(1), 85-98.
Asian Development Bank. Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific, database.
Caputo, D.A. (1975) New perspectives on the public policy implications of defense and welfare expenditures in four modern democracies: 1950-1970. Policy Sciences, 6, 423-446.
Dabelko, D. and McCormick, J.M. (1977) Opportunity cost of defense: some cross-national evidence. Journal of Peace Research, 14(2), 145-154
Hassan, M.K, Waheeduzzaman, M. and Rahman, A.(2003) Defense expenditure and economic growth in the SAARC countries. The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 28(3), 275-282
Kollias, C., Naxakis, C. and Zarangas, L. (2004a) Defence spending and growth in Cyprus: a causal analysis, Defence and Peace Economics, 15(3), 299-307.
Kollias, C., Manolas, G. and Paleologou, S. Z. (2004b) Defence expenditure and economic growth in the European Union: a causality analysis, Journal of Policy Modeling, 26, 553-569.
Lindgren, G. (1984) Review essay: Armaments and economic performance in industrialized market economies, Journal of Peace Research, 21(4), 375-387
Narayan, P.K. and Narayan, S. (2005) Estimating income and price elasticities of imports for Fiji in a cointegration framework. Economic Modelling 22, 423-438.
Scheet, T. (1992) The evolution of Public sector Expenditures: Changing Political priorities in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Peru. Journal of Peace Research, 29(2), 175 – 190.
Shieh, J.Y, Lai, C.C and Chang, W.Y (2002) Endogenous growth and defense expenditures: A new explanation of the Benoit hypothesis, Defence and Peace Economics, 13(3) 179-186
Yildirim, J. and Sezgin, S. (2002) Defence, Education and Health Expenditures in Turkey, 1924- 96*. Journal of peace research, 39(5), 569-580.