Bakewell, Oliver (2009): South-South Migration and Human Development: Reflections on African Experiences. Published in: Human Development Research Paper (HDRP) Series , Vol. 07, No. 2009
Download (849kB) | Preview
This paper looks at the relationship between migration between developing countries – or countries of the global ‘South’ – and processes of human development. The paper offers a critical analysis of the concept of South-South migration and draws attention to four fundamental problems. The paper then gives a broad overview of the changing patterns of migration in developing regions, with a particular focus on mobility within the African continent. It outlines some of the economic, social and political drivers of migration within poor regions, noting that these are also drivers of migration in the rest of the world. It also highlights the role of the state in influencing people’s movements and the outcomes of migration. The paper highlights the distinctive contribution that migration within developing regions makes to human development in terms of income, human capital and broader processes of social and political change. The paper concludes that the analysis of migration in poorer regions of the world and its relationship with human development requires much more data than is currently available.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||South-South Migration and Human Development: Reflections on African Experiences|
|Keywords:||Migration, South-South migration, Africa, Human development|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources ; Human Development ; Income Distribution ; Migration
|Date Deposited:||12. Dec 2009 07:20|
|Last Modified:||10. Aug 2015 17:51|
Adepoju, A. 2005 'Migration in West Africa', Geneva: Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration.
Adepoju, A. 2006 'Leading issues in international migration in sub-Saharan Africa', in C. Cross, D. Gelderblom, N. Roux and J. Mafukidze (eds) Views on migration in Sub-Saharan Africa: proceedings of an African Migration Alliance workshop, Cape Town, South Africa: HSRC press.
Adepoju, A. 2008 'Migration in sub-Saharan Africa' Current African Issues, Vol. 37, Uppsala: Nordika Afrikainstitutet.
Adepoju, A. and Kesson, L. 2004 'Making a Life: Meanings of Migration in Cape Verde' Department of Social Anthropology, Vol. PhD, Sweden: Göteborg University.
Akyeampong, E. K. 2006 'Race, identity and citizenship in black Africa: The case of the Lebanese in Ghana', Africa 76(3): 297-323.
Anarfi, J. and Kwankye, S. 2003 'Migration from and to Ghana: A Background Paper. ' Working Paper; C4, University of Sussex: DRC on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty.
Antwi Bosiakoh, T. 2008 'Understanding Ghana's Migrants: A Study of Nigerian Migrant Associations in Accra, Ghana' Department of Sociology, Vol. Master of Philosophy in Sociology, Legon, Accra: University of Ghana.
Arthur, J. A. 1991 'International Labor Migration Patterns in West Africa', African Studies Review 34(3): 65-87.
Awumbila, M., Manuh, T., Quartey, P., Tagoe, C. A. and Bosiakoh, T. A. 2009 'Ghana Migration Country Paper: Trends, Issues, and Emerging Research Gaps', Legon, Ghana: Centre for Migration Studies, University of Ghana.
Bakewell, O. 1999 'Refugees Repatriating or Migrating Villagers? A Study of Movement from North West Zambia to Angola' Department of Economics and International Development, Vol. PhD: University of Bath.
Bakewell, O. 2007 'Keeping Them in Their Place: the ambivalent relationship between development and migration in Africa' IMI Working Paper Oxford: International Migration Institute.
Bakewell, O. 2008a 'In Search of the Diasporas within Africa', African Diaspora 1(1): 5-27.
Bakewell, O. 2008b 'Keeping Them in Their Place: The ambivalent relationship between development and migration in Africa', Third World Quarterly 29(7): 1341-1358.
Bakewell, O. 2008c 'Migration and Development in Africa – a Critical Analysis', in R. Bardouille, M. Ndulo and M. Grieco (eds) Africa’s Finances: The Contribution of Remittances, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Bakewell, O. and de Haas, H. 2007 'African Migrations: continuities, discontinuities and recent transformations', in L. de Haan, U. Engel and P. Chabal (eds) African Alternatives, Leiden: Brill.
Baldwin-Edwards, M. 2006 ''Between a rock & a hard place': North Africa as a region of emigration, immigration & transit migration', Review of African Political Economy 33(108): 311-324.
Barros, L., Lahlou, M., Escoffier, C., Pumares, P. and Ruspini, P. 2002 'L’immigration Irregulière Subsaharienne à Travers et Vers le Maroc. ', Geneva: ILO.
Bascom, J. 2005 'The Long, 'Last Step'? Reintegration of Repatriates in Eritrea', Journal of Refugee Studies 18(2): 165-180.
Berriane, J. 2007 'Les étudiants subsahariens au Maroc : des migrants parmi d’autres ?', in I. M. Institute (ed) African Migrations Workshop: Understanding migration dynamics in the continent, Ghana.
Berriane, M. and Aderghal, M. 2009 'Etat de la recherche sur les migrations internationales à partir, vers et à travers le Maroc', Rabat, Morocco: Equipe de Recherche sur la Région et la Régionalisation (E3R), Université Mohammed V - Agdal.
Betts, A. and Milner, J. 2006 'The Externalisation of EU Asylum Policy: The Position of African States' COMPAS Working Papers, Oxford: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.
Bilger, V. and Kraler, A. 2005 'Introduction: African migrations. Historical perspectives and contemporary dynamics', Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien; Special Issue - African Migrations. Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Dynamics 8: 5-21.
Birmingham, D. 1981 Central Africa to 1870: Zambezia, Zaire and the South Atlantic, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Black, R., Crush, J., Peberdy, S., Ammassari, S., Hilker, L. M., Mouillesseaux, S., Pooley, C. and Rajkotia, R. 2006 Migration and Development in Africa: an Overview, Ontario: Southern African Migration Project, Queens University.
Black, R., Hilker, L. M. and Pooley, C. 2004 'Migration and Pro-Poor Policy in East Africa', Sussex: Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex.
Black, R. and Koser, K. (eds) 1999 The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction, Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boano, C., Zetter, R. and Morris, T. 2008 'Environmentally Displaced People: Understanding the linkages between environmental change, livelihoods and forced migration' Forced Migration Policy Briefings, Oxford: Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford.
Boubakri, H. 2004 'Transit migration between Tunisia, Libya and Sub-Saharan Africa: study based on Greater Tunis. ' Paper presented at the Regional Conference on ‘Migrants in transit countries: sharing responsibility for management and protection, Istanbul, 30 September - 1 October 2004: Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Brachet, J. 2005 'Migrants, Transporteurs et Agents d’Etat : Rencontre sur l’Axe Agadez-Sebha', Autrepart 36(4): 43-62.
Bredeloup, S. and Pliez, O. 2005 'Editorial: Migrations entre les deux rives du Sahara', Autrepart 4(36): 3-20.
Bump, M. 2006 'Ghana: Searching for Opportunities at Home and Abroad', Migration Information Source.
Caldwell, J. C. 1975 The Sahelian drought and its demographic implications Washington: Overseas Liaison Committee, American Council on Education.
Castles, S. 2002 Environmental change and forced migration: making sense of the debate, Geneva: Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Castles, S. 2004 'The myth of the controllability of difference: labour migration, transnational communities and state strategies in the Asia-Pacific region', in B. S. A. Yeoh and K. Willis (eds) State/Nation/Transnation: Perspectives on Transnationalism in the Asia-Pacific, London and New York: Routledge.
Castles, S. 2008 'Comparing the Experience of Five Major Emigration Countries', in S. Castles and R. Delgado Wise (eds) Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
Castles, S. and Delgado Wise, R. (eds) 2008 Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
Castles, S. and Miller, M. J. 2009 The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 4th Edition, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Chamie, J. and Dall’Oglio, L. (eds) 2008 International Migration and Development - Continuing the Dialogue: Legal and Policy Perspectives, New York and Geneva: Center for Migration Studies (CMS) and International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Clemens, M. 2007 'Do visas kill? Health effects of African health professional emigration' Working Paper Number 114, Washington D.C.: Center for Global Development.
Cohen, R. 1987 The New Helots: Migrants in the International Division of Labour, Aldershot: Avebury.
Cohen, R. (ed) 1995 The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, R. 2008 Global diasporas: an introduction, 2nd Edition, London: UCL Press.
Collyer, M. 2006 'Undocumented sub-Saharan migrants in Morocco', in N. N. Sorensen (ed) Mediterranean transit migration, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Crisp, J. 2003 'No solutions in sight: the problem of protracted refugee situations in Africa' New Issues in Refugee Research, Geneva: UNHCR.
Crisp, J. 2004 'The local integration and local settlement of refugees: a conceptual and historical analysis' New Issues in Refugee Research, Geneva: UNHCR.
Crush, J. 2003 'South Africa: New Nation, New Migration Policy?', Vol. 2008, Washington DC: Migration Information Source.
Crisp, J. 2007 'Mapping hostilities: The geography of xenophobia in Southern Africa', South African Geographical Journal 89(1): 64-82.
de Bruijn, M., van Dijk, R. and Foeken, D. (eds) 2001 Mobile Africa: changing patterns of movement in Africa and beyond, Leiden ; Boston: Brill. de Haan, A. 1999 'Livelihoods and poverty: The role of migration - A critical review of the migration literature', Journal Of Development Studies 36(2): 1-47.
de Haas, H. 2006a 'International migration and national development: Viewpoints and policy initiatives in countries of origin - The case of Nigeria' Working papers Migration and Development Series, Nijmegen and the Hague: Radboud University, Nijmegen and Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands.
de Haas, H. 2006b 'Migration, remittances and regional development in Southern Morocco', Geoforum 37(4): 565-580.
de Haas, H. 2008a 'Irregular migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union: : An Overview of Recent Trends', Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
de Haas, H. 2008b 'The Myth of Invasion - The inconvenient realities of African Migration to Europe', Third World Quarterly(7): 1305-1322.
de Haas, H. 2009 'Mobility and Human Development: Background paper for the UNDP Human Development Report 2009', New York: United Nations Development Programme.
Deshingkar, P. and Natali, C. 2008 'Internal Migration', in IOM (ed) World Migration 2008, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
Diatta, M. A. and Mbow, N. 1999 'Releasing the Development Potential of Return Migration: The Case of Senegal', International Migration 37(1): 243-266.
Dodson, B., Simelane, H., Tevera, D., Green, T., Chikanda, A. and de Vletter, F. 2008 'Gender, Migration and Remittances in Southern Africa', in J. Crush (ed) Migration Policy Series, Vol. 49, Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project.
Drumtra, J. 2006 'West Africa’s Refugee Crisis Spills Across Many Borders', Migration Information Source August. EACH-FOR 2008 'Preliminary findings from the EACH-FOR Project on Environmentally Induced Migration': Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios Project, www.eachfor.eu.
Eades, J. S. 1993 Strangers and Traders: Yoruba Migrants, Markets and the State in Northern Ghana, Edinburg: Edinburg University Press.
Escoffier, C. 2006 'Communautés d'Initérance et Savoir-Circuler des Transmigrant-e-s au Maghreb', Toulouse: Université Toulouse II.
Fargues, P. 2006 'Afrique du Nord et Moyen-Orient: des migrations en quête d'une politique', Politique Etrangère 4: 1017-29.
Findley, S. E. 1994 'Does Drought Increase Migration? A Study of Migration from Rural Mali during the 1983-1985 Drought', International Migration Review 28: 539-553.
Gamlen, A. 2008 'The emigration state and the modern geopolitical imagination', Political Geography 27(8): 840-856.
Gordon, R. G., Jr. (ed) 2005 Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth Edition, Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
Halvor, M. 2002 'Should I Stay or Should I Go? On Relative Deprivation and Migration Dynamics', Review of Development Economics 6(1): 69-76.
Hamood, S. 2008 'EU-Libya Cooperation on Migration: A Raw Deal for Refugees and Migrants?', Journal of Refugee Studies 21(1): 19-42.
Hampshire, K. 2002 'Fulani on the Move: Seasonal Economic Migration in the Sahel as a Social Process', Journal of Development Studies 38(5): 15 - 36.
Heering, L. and al, e. 2004 'The role of family networks and migration culture in the continuation of Moroccan emigration’: a gender perspective', Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30(2).
Henderson, L. W. 1978 Angola: Five Centuries of Conflict, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
Hoerder, D. 2002 Cultures in contact: world migrations in the second millennium, Durham: Duke University Press.
Horst, C. 2006 Transnational nomads: how Somalis cope with refugee life in the Dadaab camps of Kenya, Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Hugo, G. 2005 'Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region', Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.
Hujo, K. and Piper, N. 2007 'South-South Migration: Challenges for development and social policy', Development 50: 19-25.
IOM 2005 World Migration Report 2005: Costs and Benefits of Migration, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
ITU 2008 'Measuring Information and Communication Technology availability in villages and rural areas', Geneva: International Telecommunication Union.
Jacobsen, K. 2001 'The Forgotten Solution: local integration for refugees in developing countries' New Issues in Refugee Research, Geneva: UNHCR. Jayasuriya, S. d. S. and Angenot., J.-P. 2008 Uncovering the history of Africans in Asia, Leiden: Brill.
Jonsson, G. 2007 'The Mirage of Migration: Migration Aspirations and Immobility in a Malian Soninke Village' Institute of Anthropology, Vol. Master's Thesis, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen.
Kandel, W. and Massey, D. S. 2002 'The Culture of Mexican Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis', Social Forces 80(3).
Khadria, B. 2008 'Migration and Social Policy in Asia' Paper prepared for the UNRISD-IOMIFES project on Social Policy and Migration in Developing Countries, Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Kibreab, G. 2002 'When refugees come home: the relationships between stayees and returnees in post-conflict Eritrea', Journal of Contemporary African Studies 20(1): 53-80.
Kleist, N. 2007 'Somali-Scandinavian A Dreaming When “the Diaspora” Returns to the Desert', in N. Nyberg-Sørensen (ed) Living Across Worlds: Diaspora, Development and Transnational Engagement, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
Kleist, N. 2008 'Mobilising 'The Diaspora': Somali Transnational Political Engagement', Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34(2): 307 - 323.
Landau, L. B. 2004 'Myth and Decision in South African Migration Management and Research' Forced Migration Working Paper Series, Johannesburg: Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand.
Leichtman, M. A. 2005 'The legacy of transnational lives: Beyond the first generation of Lebanese in Senegal', Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 663-686.
Levitt, P. 1998 'Social Remittances: Migration Driven Local-Level Forms of Cultural Diffusion', International Migration Review 32(4): 926-948.
Lindley, A. 2007 'Protracted displacement and remittances: the view from Eastleigh, Nairobi' New Issues in Refugee Research, Geneva: Policy Development and Evaluation Service, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Lipton, M. 1980 'Migration from Rural Areas of Poor Countries: the impact on rural productivity and income distribution', World Development 8: 1-24.
Loescher, G. and Milner, J. 2005 'Protracted Refugee Situations: Domestic and International Security Implications', The Adelphi Papers 45(375).
Macharia, K. 1992 'Slum Clearance and the Informal Economy in Nairobi', The Journal of Modern African Studies 30(2): 221-236.
Mandela, N. R. 1994 Long Walk to Freedom, London: Abacus.
Manning, P. 2003 'Africa and the African diaspora: New directions of study', Journal of African History 44(3): 487-506.
Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A. and Taylor, J. E. 1998 Worlds in motion: understanding international migration at the end of the millennium, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
McDonald, D. A. and Crush, J. (eds) 2002 Destinations Unknown: Perspectives on the Brain Drain in Southern Africa, Pretoria: Africa Institute and SAMP.
McDowell, C. and de Haan, A. 1997 'Migration and Sustainable Livelihoods: A Critical Review of the Literature' IDS Working Papers, Vol. 65, Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.
Meier, B. 2005 'Friendship and Social Peace among Northern Migrants in Accra/Tema', Legon Journal of Sociology 2(1): 55-80.
Miles, W. F. S. 2005 'Development, not division: local versus external perceptions of the Niger- Nigeria boundary', Journal of Modern African Studies 43(2): 297-320.
Miller, J. C. 1988 Way of Death: Merchant capitalism and the Angolan slave trade 1730-1830, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Myers, N. and Kent, J. 1995 Environmental exodus: an emergent crisis in the global arena, Washington D.C.: Climate Institute.
Naik, A., Koehler, J. and Laczko, F. 2008 'Migration and Development: Achieving Policy Coherence' IOM Migration Research Series, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
Nayyar, D. 2000 Cross-Border Movements of People, Helsinki: The United Nations University / World Institute for Development Economics Research.
Ngoie, G. T. and Vwakyanakazi, M. 2009 'Profil migratoire par pays: cas de la RDC', Lubumbashi, DR Congo: Département des Relations Internationales, Université de Lubumbashi/Katanga.
Niessen, J., Huddleston, T. and Citron, L. 2007 Migrant Integration Policy Index, Brussels: British Council and Migration Policy Group.
Nugent, P. and Asiwaju, A. I. (eds) 1996 African Boundaries: Borders, Conduits and Opportunities, London: Pinter.
Nyame, F. and Grant, J. A. 2007 'Implications of migration patterns associated with the mining and minerals industry in Ghana' African Migations Workshop - Understanding Migration Dynamics in the Continent, Accra, Ghana.
Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2006 Insiders and outsiders: citizenship and xenophobia in contemporary Southern Africa, London: Zed.
OECD. 2006 International Migration Outlook, SOPEMI 2006 Edition, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
OECD. 2007a 'Editorial - The Medical Brain Drain: Myths and Realities', in OECD (ed) International Migration Outlook, SOPEMI 2007 Edition, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
OECD. 2007b International Migration Outlook, SOPEMI 2007 Edition, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Olwig, K. F. and Sørensen, N. N. 2002 'Mobile Livelihoods: making a living in the world', in N. N. Sørensen and K. F. Olwig (eds) Work and migration: life and livelihoods in a globalizing world, London: Routledge.
Oucho, J. O. 2006 'Migration and refugees in Eastern Africa: A challenge for the East African community', in C. Cross, D. Gelderblom, N. Roux and J. Mafukidze (eds) Views on migration in Sub-Saharan Africa: proceedings of an African Migration Alliance workshop, Cape Town, South Africa: HSRC press.
Papstein, R. 1989 'From Ethnic Identity to Tribalism: the Upper Zambezi Region of Zambia 1830-1981', in L. Vail (ed) The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa, London: James Currey.
Parsons, C. R., Skeldon, R., Walmsley, T. l. and Winters, L. A. 2005 'Quantifying the International Bilateral Movements of Migrants' Working Paper T13: Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex.
Pedersen, J. 1995 'Drought, Migration and Population Growth in the Sahel: The Case of the Malian Gourma: 1900-1991', Population Studies 49(1): 111-126.
Pendleton, W., Crush, J., Campbell, E., Green, T., Simelane, H., Tevera, D. and De Vletter, F. 2006 'Migration, Remittances and Development in Southern Africa', in J. Crush (ed) Migration Policy Paper Series, Vol. 44, Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project.
Potts, L. 1990 The World Labour Market: A History of Migration, London: Zed Books.
Pritchett, J. A. 1990 'Continuity and Change in an African Society: the Kanongesha Lunda of Mwinilunga, Zambia', Cambridge MA: Harvard University.
Quiminal, C. 1991 Gens d’Ici, Gens d’Ailleurs. Migrations Soninké et transformations villageoises, France: Christian Bourgois Editeur.
Ratha, D. and Shaw, W. 2007 'South-South Migration and Remittances' World Bank Working Paper, Washington D.C.: Development Prospects Group, World Bank.
Renaud, F., Bogardi, J. J., Dun, O. and Warner, K. 2007 'Control, Adapt or Flee. How to Face Environmental Migration?' InterSecTions: UNU-EHS. Rosenzweig, R. and Stark, O. 1989 'Consumption Smoothing, Migration and Marriage: evidence from rural India', Journal of Political Economy 97(4): 905-926.
Safran, W. 1999 'Comparing Diasporas: A Review Essay', Diaspora 8(3): 255-291.
SAMP 2008 'The Perfect Storm: The Realities of Xenophobia in Contemporary South Africa', in J. Crush (ed) Migration Policy Paper Series, Vol. 50, Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project.
Sander, C. and Maimbo, S. M. 2003 'Migrant Labor Remittances in Africa: Reducing Obstacles to Developmental Contributions' Africa Region Working Paper Series, Washington DC: World Bank.
Sangambo and M.K. 1984 The History of the Luvale People and their Chieftainship, 2nd edition, 1979 1st Edition, Zambezi, Zambia: Mize Palace.
Schuerkens, U. 2003 'Structural Change in Western Africa as a Legacy of European Colonialism: The Labour System in Ghana and the Ivory Coast', Current Sociology 51(3-4): 287-304.
Shimpo, M. 1995 'Indentured migrants from Japan', in C. R. (ed) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sinn, E. (ed) 1998 The Last Half Century of Chinese Overseas, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Skeldon, R. 2006a 'Interlinkages between internal and international migration and development in the Asian region', Population, Space and Place 12(1): 15-30.
Skeldon, R. 2006b 'Recent trends in migration in East and Southeast Asia', Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 15(2): 277-93.
Sørensen, N. N., Van Hear, N. and Engberg-Pedersen, P. 2002 'The Migration-Development Nexus: Evidence and Policy Options State of the Art Review', International Migration 40(5): 3- 48.
Stark, O. 1984 'Rural to Urban Migration in LDCs: a relative deprivation approach', Economic Development and Cultural Change 32: 475-486.
Stark, O. and Lucas, R. E. B. 1988 'Migration, Remittances, and the Family', Economic Development and Cultural Change 36(3): 465.
Suhrke, A. 1994 'Environmental degradation and population flows', Journal of International Affairs 47(2): 473-496.
Taylor, J. E., Rozelle, S. and de Brauw, A. 2003 'Migration and incomes in source communities: A new economics of migration perspective from China', Economic Development and Cultural Change 52(1): 75-101.
Thomas, K. J. A. 2008 'Return Migration in Africa and the Relationship between Educational Attainment and Labor Market Success: Evidence from Uganda', International Migration Review 42(3): 652-674.
UN 2005. 'Trends in Total Migrant Stock: the 2005 Revision', New York: Population Divsion, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
UN 2005. 2006 'International Migration 2006 Wallchart', Vol. 2008, New York: United Nations Population Division.
UNHCR. 2008a 2007 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons, Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
UNHCR. 2008b 'Protracted Refugee Situations: revisiting the problem' UNHCR Executive Committee Standing Committee - 42nd meeting, Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Van Hear, N. 1998 New diasporas: the mass exodus, dispersal and regrouping of migrant communities, London: UCL Press.
Van Hear, N. 2004 'Diasporas, Remittances, Development, and Conflict', Migration Information Source, June 1, 2003.
Vertovec, S. 2004 'Cheap Calls: The Social Glue of Migrant Transnationalism', Global Networks 4(2): 219-224.
von Oppen, A. 1995 Terms of Trade and Terms of Trust: the history and contexts of pre-colonial market production around the Upper Zambezi and Kasai, Hamburg: Lit.
Wickramasekara, P. 2008 'Immigration policies in South and Southeast Asia: Groping in the dark?' Panel on Immigration Experiences of Developing Countries at the 13th Metropolis Conference, Bonn.
Wouterse, F. and Taylor, J. E. 2008 'Migration and Income Diversification:: Evidence from Burkina Faso', World Development 36(4): 625-640.
Wouterse, F. S. 2006 'Survival or accumulation: migration and rural households in Burkina Faso', Wageningen: Wageningen University.
Wouterse, F. S. 2008 'Migration, poverty, and inequality: evidence from Burkina Faso' IFPRI discussion paper / International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Wright, C. 1995 'Gender Awareness in Migration Theory: synthesizing actor and structure in Southern Africa', Development and Change 26: 771-791.
Yamanaka, K. and Piper, N. 2005 'Feminized Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Policies, Actions and Empowerment', Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Zlotnik, H. 2003 'The Global Dimensions of Female Migration', Vol. 2007, Washington DC: Migration Information Source.
Zlotnik, H. 2004 'International Migration in Africa: An Analysis Based on Estimates of the Migrant Stock', Vol. 2009, Washington DC: Migration Information Source.
Zlotnik, H. 2006 'The Dimensions of Migration in Africa', in M. Tienda, S. Findley, S. Tollman and E. Preston-Whyte (eds) Africa on the move : African migration and urbanisation in comparative perspective, Johannesburg: Wits University Press.
Zoomers, A. and van Naerssen, T. 2006 'International migration and national development in sub-Saharan Africa. Viewpoints and policy initiatives in the countries of origin' Working papers Migration and Development series Report No. 14, Nijmegen and The Hague: Radboud University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.