Vinokurov, Evgeny (2007): Kaliningrad: Enclaves and Economic Integration.
Download (1MB) | Preview
As the Soviet Union broke up, Kaliningrad suddenly found itself separated from mainland Russia by new frontiers. Hardly any other Russian region has been hit as hard by the economic disruption as Kaliningrad. The geographical situation of the region meant that it was more highly exposed to the destabilising effects of post-communist economic transformation. Since then, a dramatic trade opening has occurred, and regional trade and production have undergone profound changes. Kaliningrad has experienced a major shift in its economic orientation towards the tertiary sector and a new industrial orientation based on its position as an intermediary in EU–Russian trade. In short, that is what this report is about: the present and future economic development of this Russian enclave during its integration into the world economy, its place in the international division of labour and in the Russian–EU economic interface.
The major phenomenon relative to the economic development of the region is its enclave status. The report explores the specific features of enclave economies and, specifically, Kaliningrad. It argues that (a) economic openness is a prerequisite for an enclave’s prosperity; (b) the enclave should develop an multi-vectored orientation toward both the Russian market and the EU market complementing industrial specialisation targeting the mainland by new features; (d) as economic integration – with the surrounding state or on a non-discriminatory basis – has significant positive effects on enclaves, the future of Kaliningrad’s regional economy and its specialisation is profoundly connected to Russian–EU relations and the prospects for their economic integration.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Kaliningrad: Enclaves and Economic Integration|
|Keywords:||enclave, exclave, Kaliningrad, Russia, European Union, Wider Neighbourhood|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F15 - Economic Integration
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R1 - General Regional Economics > R10 - General
|Depositing User:||Dr. Evgeny Vinokurov|
|Date Deposited:||26. Feb 2010 06:53|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 17:24|
Ahrend, R. (2004), Russian Industrial Restructuring: Trends in Productivity, Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage, OECD Economics Department Working Papers 408, OECD, Paris.
Armstrong, H.W. and R. Read (1998), “Trade and Growth in Small States: The Impact of Global Trade Liberalisation”, World Economy, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 563-85.
Balassa, Bela (1965) Trade Liberalization and ‚Revealed’ Comparative Advantage, Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies, 33 (May): 90-123. Reprinted as Ch. 4 of Balassa (1989).
Balassa, B. (1965), Trade Liberalization and ‘Revealed’ Comparative Advantage, Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies, 33 (May), pp. 90-123, reprinted as ch.4 in Balassa (1989).
Balassa, B. (1989), Comparative Advantage, Trade Policy, and Economic Development, New York: New York University Press.
Balassa, B. and L. Bauwens (1988), Changing Trade Patterns in Manufactured Goods: An Econometric Investigation, Contributions to Economic Analysis No. 176, Amsterdam: North Holland.
Baldone, S., F. Sdogati and L. Tajoli (2001), “Patterns and Determinants of International Fragmentation of Production: Evidence from Outward Processing Trade between the EU and Central Eastern European Countries”, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 137, No. 1, pp. 80-104.
Baxendale, J., S. Dewar and D. Gowan (eds) (2000), The EU and Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad and the Impact of EU Enlargement, Federal Trust, London.
Benedictis, L. de and M. Tamberi (2001), A Note on the Balassa Index of Revealed Comparative Advantage, Working Paper No 158, Universita Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Economia (retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=289602).
Bhagwati, J. (1995), “U.S. Trade Policy: The Infatuation with Free Trade Areas”, in J. Bhagwati and A. Krueger, The Dangerous Drift to Preferential Trade Agreements, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C.
Bilchak, V. and A. Telyatnikov (1995), Centr i anklavny region: problemy vzaimootnosheniy [The Centre and the Enclave Region: The Problems of the Relationship], Vestnik Baltiyskogo nauchnogo centra, 3 (January-March), pp. 12-18.
Bilchak, V., I. Samson and G. Fedorov (2000), Kaliningradsky polyus integracii [The Kaliningrad Pole of Integration], Grenoble, Kaliningrad.
Birkenbach, H.-M. and C. Wellmann (eds) (2003), The Kaliningrad Challenge: Options and Recommendations, LIT: Münster, Hamburg and London.
Boockmann, H. (1992), Ostpreussen und Westpreussen [East Prussia and West Prussia], Berlin: Siegler Verlag.
Borodavkina, N. (2001), “Sozdaniye gosudarstvennoy sistemy sodeystvia eksportu” [Establishment of the State System of Export Promotion], Vestnik Baltiyskogo nauchnogo centra, Vol. 2, No. 15, pp. 125-32.
Brenton, P. and S. Manzocchi (2002), “Enlargement, trade and investment: A review of economic impacts”, in P. Brenton and S. Manzocchi (eds), Enlargement, Trade and Investment: The Impact of Barriers to Trade in Europe, CEPS, Brussels and Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Brenton, P. and M. Manchin (2002), “Trade Policies in Russia and the EU with Implications for the Economic Impact of a Free Trade Agreement”, mimeo, CEPS, Brussels.
Brenton, P., N. Tourdyeva and J. Whalley (1997), “The Potential Trade Effects of an FTA between the EU and Russia”, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 133, pp. 205-25
––––––––– (2002), “The Economic Impact of a Free Trade Agreement between Russia and the EU: Numerical Simulations using a General Equilibrium Trade Model”, Report prepared for a TACIS project, CEPS, Brussels.
Carluer, F. (2004), Pouvoir économique et espace : Analyses de la divergence régionale, Paris: L’Harmattan.
Chabanova, A.V. (2002), “Razlichiya v kaliningradskom soziume: rezultaty sociologicheskogo issledovaniya” [Differentiality of the Kaliningrad Sozium: The Results of the Sociological Research], in A.P. Klemeshev (ed.), Kaliningradsky sozium v evropeyskom kontekste [Kaliningrad sozium in European context], Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad State University Press.
Colletis, G. and B. Pecqueur (1993), « Intégration des espaces and quasi-intégration des firmes: vers de nouvelles rencontres productives? » Revue d’économie régionale et urbaine, 3.
––––––––– (1994), Les facteurs de la concurrence spatiale et la construction des territoires [Organisation of production and territory: Local models of development], Pavie: Ginni Luculano Editore.
Colletis-Wahl, K. and J. Perrat (2004), « Proximités et dynamiques spatiales », in B. Pecqueur and J.-B. Zimmermann, Economie de proximités; Paris: Lavoisier, Hermes Sciences, pp. 115-33.
Delius, F.C. and P.J. Lapp (1999), Transit Westberlin. Erlebnisse im Zwischenraum [Westberlin Transit: Experience in No Man’s Land], Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag.
Dewar, S. (2000), “What is to be done?”, in J. Baxendale, S. and D. Gowan (eds), The EU and Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad and the Impact of EU Enlargement, Federal Trust, London, pp. 231-64.
Eliseeva, I. and N. Burova (2002), “The measurement of the shadow economy in St Petersburg and Kaliningrad”, paper presented to RECEP Conference “Russia’s Opening to the World Economy and the Building of a Common European Economic Space”, 20-21 September 2002 in Moscow (retrieved in 2003 from www.recep.ru).
Emerson, M., N. Tocci, M. Vahl and N. Whyte (2001), The Elephant and the Bear: The European Union, Russia and Their Near Abroads, CEPS, Brussels.
Emerson, M. (2005), EU–Russia: Four Common Spaces and the Proliferation of the Fuzzy, CEPS Policy Brief No. 71, CEPS, Brussels, May.
Fairlie, L.D. and A. Sergounin (2001), Are Borders Barriers? EU Enlargement and the Russian Region of Kaliningrad, Ulkopolittinen instituuti & Institut für Europäische Politik, Helsinki.
Federal Target Programme (2002), Federal Target Programme of Development of the Kaliningrad oblast until 2010, Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of the Russian Federation, Moscow (retrieved from http://www.programs-gov.ru/cgi-bin/index.cgi?prg=135 English version: http://kaliningrad-rda.org/en/development/docs.php).
Fedorov, G.M. (1998a), “Geopoliticheskoye polozheniye Kaliningradkoy oblast I perspektivy ee ekonomicheskogo razvitiya” [The Geopolitical Location of the Kaliningrad oblast and the Perspectives of Economic Development], Vestnik Baltiyskogo nauchnogo centra, Vol. 1, No. 10, pp. 21-28.
––––––––– (1998b), “O perspektivakh poetapnogo vkhozhdeniya Rossiyskoy Federacii v Evrosoyuz i vozmozhnoy roli Kaliningradkoy oblasti v etom processe” [On the perspectives of the phased EU accession of the RF and the potential role of the Kaliningrad oblast in this process], Vestnik Baltiyskogo nauchnogo centra, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 19-25.
Gareev, T., V. Zhdanov and G. Fedorov (2005), “Novaya ekonomika Kaliningradskoy oblasti” [The new economy of the Kaliningrad region], Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2.
Gareev, T., V. Zhdanov, Y. Zverev, G. Fedorov and M. Tsikel (2005), Stanovleniye novoy ekonomiki Kaliningradskoy oblasti [Establishment of the new economy of the Kaliningrad region], Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad State University Press.
Gornig, G.H. (1995), Das nördliche Ostpreussen. Gestern und Heute [North-East Prussia: Yesterday and Today], Bonn: Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen.
Grubel, Herbert G., Lloyd, Peter J. (1975), Intra-Industry Trade: The Theory and Measurement of International Trade in Differentiated Products, New York: Wiley.
Hörning, Erika M. (1992) Zwischen den Fronten. Berliner Grenzgänger und Grenzhändler 1948-1961 [Between the Lines. The Border Commuters and Border Traders of Berlin], Köln, Weimar, Wien: Böhlau Verlag.
Institute for the Economy in Transition (IET) (2002), Problems Related to Development of the Kaliningrad Region as an Exclave Territory of the Russian Federation, IET, Moscow.
––––––––– (2004), Russian Economy in 2003: Trends and Outlooks, IET, Moscow.
Ivchenko, V. (2001), “O dolgosrochnoy strategii Rossii po sokhraneniyu i razvitiyu ekskavnogo regiona – Kaliningradskoy oblasti” [On the Russian long-term strategy of the preservation and development of the exclave region – Kaliningrad oblast], Vestnik Baltiyskogo nauchnogo centra, 2, pp. 3-10.
Joenniemi, P., S. Dewar and L.D. Fairlie (2000), The Kaliningrad Puzzle – A Russian Region within the European Union, Baltic Institute and the Åland Islands Peace Institute, Karlkrona, Sweden.
Jones, R. and H. Kierzkowski (1997), Globalization and the Consequences of International Fragmentation, Festschrift in Honor of Robert A. Mundell, World Bank, Washington, D.C. KRCS (Kaliningrad Regional Committee for Statistics) (2001), Kaliningradskaya oblast v cifrach 2001 [Kaliningrad region in numbers 2001], Kaliningrad.
–––––––––KRCS (Kaliningrad Regional Committee for Statistics) (2002), Kaliningradskaya oblast v cifrach 200201 [Kaliningrad region in numbers 20021], Kaliningrad.
––––––––– (2004), Kaliningradskaya oblast v cifrach 2004 [Kaliningrad region in numbers 2004], Kaliningrad.
Kernohan, D. and E. Vinokurov (2004), “The EU–Russia WTO Deal: Balancing Mid-term and Longer-term Growth Prospects?”, CEPS Commentary, CEPS, Brussels, October (retrieved from http://www.ceps.be/Article.php?article_id=382).
Khlopeckiy, A. and G. Fedorov (2000), Kaliningradskaya oblast: region sotrudnichestva [Kaliningrad oblast: The region of cooperation], Kaliningrad: Yantarny Skaz.
Kiel International Ad-hoc Group of Experts on Kaliningrad (2002), Kaliningrad in Focus: Policy recommendations in the perspective of problem-solving, Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research, SHIP-Texts 67, Kiel University.
Klemeshev, A. and G. Fedorov (2004), Ot izolirovannogo eksklava – k “koridory razvitiya”. Al’ternativy rossiyskogo eksklava na Baltike [From an isolated exclave – To a “development corridor”: The alternatives of the Russian exclave on the Baltics], Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad State University Press.
Klemeshev, A., S. Kozlov and G. Fedorov (2002), Ostrov sotrudnichestva [The Island of Cooperation], Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad State University Press.
Korolev, I.S. (2002), “Main impulses for Russia’s Europeanisation are in Russia itself”, in EU–Russian common market: Is it possible?, Russia in United Europe Committee, Moscow.
Kostyashov, Y.V. (1996), Zaseleniye Kaliningradskoy oblasti posle vtoroy mirovoy voyny [Inhabiting the Kaliningrad region after the Second World War], Humanitarian Sciences in Russia, Moscow.
Kuzin, V. (2005), “Razvitiye klasterov v Kaliningradskoy oblasti” [Cluster Development in the Kaliningrad Region], mimeo.
Kuznetsova O.V. and M.A. Mau (2002), Kaliningradskaya oblast: ot “nepotoplyaemogo avianostsa” k “nepotoplyaemomu sborochnomu tsehu”, Vzglyad iz Rossii. [Kaliningrad oblast: From the “unsinkable aircraft carrier” to the “unsinkable assembly shop”, View from Russia], Russia in United Europe Committee, Moscow.
Lafay, G. (1979), “Dynamique de la specialisation internationale” [The dynamics of international specialisation], Economica.
Lafay, G. and G. Herzog (1989), “Commerce international: la fin des avantages acquis” [The end of the acquired advantages], Economica.
Lamande, V. and E. Vinokurov (2003), “Formirovaniye torgovoy spezializacii Kaliningradskoy oblasty” [Formation of Kaliningrad Trade Specialisation], Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2, pp. 53-63.
Laursen, K. (1998), Revealed Comparative Advantage and the Alternatives as Measures of International Specialisation, Druid Working Paper 98-30, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen.
Linnemann, H. (1966), An Econometric Study of International Trade Flows, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Liuhto, K. (2005), “Kaliningrad after the EU Enlargement but before the legislative change concerning its special economic zone”, in K. Liuhto (ed.), Kaliningrad 2020: Its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku.
Matochkin, Y., V. Kuzin and E. Vinokurov (2004), “Analiz opyta importnych kvot v Kaliningradskoy oblasti (1998–2003)” [Analysis of the Experience of the Import Quotas in the Kaliningrad region (1998–2003)], Ekonomika Severo-Zapada Rossii [Economics of the North-West of Russia], Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 76-81.
Medvedev, S. and A. Ignatyev (2005), “Kaliningrad as a Pilot Region in EU–Russian relations: Scenario Exercise”, in K. Liuhto (ed.), Kaliningrad 2020: Its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku, pp. 141-59.
Minghi, Julian V. (1962), Point Roberts, Washington – the problem of an American enclave, Yearbook, Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, 29-34.
National Investment Council (NIC) (2002), Economic consequences of Russia’s WTO accession, NIC, Moscow.
Neven, D. (1995), “Trade Liberalisation with Eastern Nations: How Sensitive?”, in R. Faini and R. Portes (eds), European Union Trade with Eastern Europe: Adjustment and Opportunities, CEPR, London.
Niebuhr, A. and S. Stiller (2002), Integration Effect in Border Regions – A Survey of Economic Theory and Empirical Studies, HWWA Discussion Paper 179, Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Hamburg.
Reid, Scott (1992) Canada Remapped: how the partition of Quebec will reshape the nation, Pulp Press, Vancouver.
Revyakin, E. (2002), Prioritety ekonomicheskoy politiki Rossii v Kaliningradskoy oblasti [The Priorities of the Russian Economic Policy in the Kaliningrad oblast], Mezhdunarodnaya economica i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [World Economy and International Relations], 12, pp. 68-75.
Robinson, G.W.S. (1959), “Exclaves”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 49 (September), pp. 283-95.
Richardson, D.J. and C. Zhang (1999), Revealing Comparative Advantage: Chaotic or Coherent Patterns across Time and Sector and U.S. Trading Partner?, NBER Working Paper 7212, NBER, Cambridge, MA.
Samson, I. (ed.) (2000a), Kaliningrad region: The diagnosis of a crisis, TACIS Prometee II, Grenoble, Moscow, Kaliningrad.
––––––––– (2000b), Kaliningrad region 2010: Potential, Concepts and Prospects, Grenoble, Kaliningrad, Moscow.
Samson, I. (2002), “The Common European Economic Space between Russia and the EU: An Institutional Anchor for Accelerating Russian Reform”, Russian Economic Trends, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 7-15.
Samson, I., V. Lamande, I. Elisseeva, N. Burova, and G. Fedorov (2002), A New Look at the Kaliningrad Region, Grenoble Univeristy, Grenoble (retrieved from http://web.upmf-grenoble.fr/pepse/IMG/pdf/kalinewlook2.pdf, October 2005).
Samson, I., V. Lamande and E. Vinokurov (2004), “Measuring Regional Economic Development in Russia: The Case of the Kaliningrad oblast”, European Urban and Regional Studies, 11 (January), pp. 71-81.
Scherrer, R.E. (1973), Der Zollanschluss der deutschen Enklave Büsingen an die Schweiz : zugleich ein Beitrag zur Lehre von der Gebietshoheit [The Customs Inclusion of the German Enclave of Büsingen to Switzerland: Simultaneously a Contribution to the Doctrine of Territorial Sovereignty], Zürich: Schulthess.
Smorodinskaya, N. (2001a), Kaliningrad Exclave: Prospects for Transformation into a Pilot Region, Institute of Economics RAS, East West Institute, New York, NY.
––––––––– (2001b), “Kaliningrad v usloviyakh ob’yedineniya Evropy: vyzov i otvet” [Kaliningrad in the Conditions of the European Unification: Challenge and Response], Voprosy Ekonomiki, 11, pp. 106-27.
Smorodinskaya, N. and S. Zhukov (2003), The Kaliningrad Enclave in Europe: Swimming Against the Tide, Diagnostics of the State and Potential of Economic Development, East West Institute, New York, NY.
Usanov, A. (2005), “Future Vision of the Kaliningrad Economic in the Baltic Sea Region”, in K. Liuhto (ed.), Kaliningrad 2020: Its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku, pp. 122-40.
Usanov, A. and A. Kharin (2005), “Sovremennaya situaciya i problemy pererabatyvayushey promyshlennosti v Kaliningradskoy oblasti” [Contemporary situation and the problems of the processing industry in the Kaliningrad oblast], mimeo, Kaliningrad.
Vinokurov, E. (2002a), Anklavy v mirovoy economike i politike [Enclaves in World Economy and Politics: Experience of the Last Decennials], Mezhdunarodnaya economica i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [World Economy and International Relations], 9, pp. 83-88.
Vinokurov E. (2002b), “Development of Trade with Mainland Russia in the Trade Balance of Kaliningrad Region”, Les Cahiers de l’Espace Europe (Special issue on the theme Russia–European Union: On the eve of the EU enlargement), Fall 2002 (available at www.vinokurov.info).
Vinokurov E. (2003a), “Obsheye ekonomicheskoye prostranstvo ES-Rossiya i Kaliningrad” [Common Economic Space EU–Russia and Kaliningrad], Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [World Economy and International Relations], 11, pp. 53-60.
Vinokurov E. (2003b), “Kaliningradu dolzhno byt’ vozvrasheno ego prezhneye nazvaniye”, Königsberg [Kaliningrad should reacquire its previous name, Königsberg], Kul’turny Sloy, 2 (available atfrom www.vinokurov.info)
Vinokurov E. (2004a), “Kaliningrad’s borders and transit to mainland Russia: Technicalities and remaining bottlenecks”, CEPS Commentary, CEPS, Brussels, February.
Vinokurov E. (2004b), Kaliningrad in the Framework of the EU–Russian Dialogue: Towards Common Space, Chair Interbrew Baillet-Latour Working Paper Series, No. 20, Catholic Univerity of Leuven (retrieved from http://soc.kuleuven.be/iieb/ibl/ publications.htm#working).
Vinokurov E. (2004c), Transit is just a part of it: Kaliningrad and the free movement of people, Association of International Experts on the Development of the Kaliningrad Region, sponsored by SHIP, Kiel University (retrieved from www.kaliningradexpert.org).
Vinokurov E. (2004d), Economic Prospects for Kaliningrad: Between EU Enlargement and Russia’s Integration into the World Economy, CEPS Working Document No. 201, CEPS, Brussels.
Vinokurov E.(2004e), “Ideya evropeysko-rossiyskoy zony svobodnoy torgovli v Kaliningradskoy oblasti” [The Idea of an EU–Russian Free Trade Zone in the Kaliningrad Oblast], Rossiya i Evropeyskiy Soyuz [Russia and the European Union], Kennan Institute, Moscow, pp. 249-57.
Vinokurov E. (2005a), “The Enclave-Specific Vulnerability of Kaliningrad”, in K. Liuhto (ed.), Kaliningrad 2020: Its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku, pp. 56-74.
Vinokurov E. (2006a), The Making of the Concept of the EU–Russian Common Economic Space, in S. Bruno (ed.), Trade and Industry Developments in Central and Eastern Europe, London and Aldershot: Ashgate.
Vinokurov E. (2006b), Enclaves and Exclaves of the World: Setting the Framework for a Theory of Enclaves, ZDES Working Paper, University of Bielefeld/St Petersburg State University (available at www.zdes.spb.ru).
Vinokurov E. (2007), A Theory of Enclaves, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Vinokurov, E., A. Usanov, P. Lindholm and A. Ignatyev (2005), Kaliningrad in the Context of Establishing the EU–Russia Common Economic Space, East-West Institute Policy Brief, East West Institute, New York, NY (available at www.ewi.org and www.kaliningradexpert.org).
Voronov, K. (2005), “Kaliningradskaya oblast v otnosheniyakh Rossii i ES: medlenny dreif” [Kaliningradskaya oblast in the Russian–EU relations: The slow drift], Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 3, pp. 17-26.
Whyte, B. (2002), Waiting for the Esquimo, an historical and documentary study of the Cooch Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh, Research Paper 8, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Melbourne, Publication of Ph.D. thesis.
World Trade Organisation (WTO) Secretariat (2000), Trade Policy Review: European Communities, WTO, Geneva.
––––––––– (2002), Trade Policy Review: Hong Kong, China, WT/TPR/S/109, WTO, Geneva, pp. 8-9 (retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/s109-1_e.doc).
––––––––– (2004), Trade Policy Review: European Communities, WT/TPR/S/136 37, WTO, Geneva.
Yeats, A.J. (1985), “On the Appropriate Interpretation of the Revealed Comparative Index”, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 121, pp. 61-73.
Yudanov, Y. (2002), “Baltiysky region: osobennosti formirovaniya blagopriatnogo klimata dlya pryamykh inostrannikh investiciy” [The Baltic Region: The peculiarities of the formation of a favourable climate for foreign direct investments], Mezhdunarodnaya economica i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [World Economy and International Relations], 12, pp. 58-67.
Yusupov, I. (2000), Tendencii i problemy internacionalizacii regionalnoy ekonomiki v RF [Tendencies and Problems of the Internationalisation of the Regional Economies in the RF], Executive summary of the doctoral thesis, VNIKI, Moscow.
Zagashvili, V.S. (1997), Ekonomicheskaya bezopasnost Rossii [Economic Security of Russia], Moscow: Yurist.
Zernov, A. and K. Shopin (2005), Kaliningrad Transit of Goods: In Need of a Strategic Approach to Problem-Solving, East-West Institute Policy Brief, East West Institute, New York, NY.
Zhdanov, V. (2005), “Modern Terms and Future Competitiveness of the Kaliningrad Region’s Economy”, in K. Liuhto (ed.), Kaliningrad 2020: Its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku, pp. 75-90.
Zverev Y.M. (2003), Kaliningradskaya oblast v klassifikacii anklavnykh (eksklavnykh) territories of the world [The Kaliningrad oblast in the classification of enclave (exclave) territories of the world], Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad State University Press.