Nega, Fredu and Mathijs, Erik and Deckers, Josef and Tollens, Eric (2009): Gender, social capital and empowerment in northern Ethiopia.
Download (151kB) | Preview
This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and empowerment in the rural areas of northern Ethiopia. We define empowerment narrowly as the power of households to make important decisions that change their course of life. Depending on the degree of control over decisions, the response of households is classified into passive, active and full control. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze empowerment levels of the rural households, first for the full sample of households and then for male headed and female headed households separately. Findings indicate that social capital, measured by the number of local associations a household is a member of, is an important factor in empowerment, but with significant gender differences. Social capital is significant for male headed households but not for female headed households; for the latter, education and access to credit are the strongest determinants of empowerment.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Gender, social capital and empowerment in northern Ethiopia|
|Keywords:||Empowerment, Gender, Social capital, Ethiopia|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D71 - Social Choice ; Clubs ; Committees ; Associations|
|Depositing User:||Unnamed user with email firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Date Deposited:||28. Aug 2010 17:04|
|Last Modified:||08. Jan 2014 16:42|
Afshar, H., & Alikhan, F. (2002). Age and empowerment amongst slum dwelling women in Hydrabad. Journal of International Development 14(8): 1153-1161. DOI:10.1002/jid.957
Alderman, H., & Paxson C. (1992). Do the Poor Insure? A synthesis of the Literature on Risk and Consumption in Developing Countries. Policy Research Working Papers, No. 1008. World Bank. Washington, DC.
Barrett, C. B., Buzineh, M., Clay, D. C., & Reardon, T. (2005). Heterogeneous constraints, incentives and income diversification strategies in Rural Africa. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 44(1): 37-60
Durlauf, S. N. (2002). On the empirics of social capital. The Economic Journal, 112(483): 459-79.
Esman, M. J. (2003). Social capital and empowerment. Cornel University. [Online] http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/68ByDocName/MiltonJEsman/$FILE/Millt+PDF.pdf [accessed 10 February 2009]
Grootaert, C. (2003). On the relationship between empowerment, social capital and community-driven development. World Bank. Working Paper no. 33074. [Online] http://go.worldbank.org/EYUP8R7IC0 [accessed 10 February 2009]
Grootaert, C. & Narayan, D. (2004). Local institutions, poverty and household welfare in Bolivia. World Develoment 32(7): 1179-1198.
Grootaert, C., & van Bastelaer, T. (2002). The role of social capital and development – An empirical assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Haddad, L, & Maluccio, J. (2000). Social capital and household welfare in South Africa: Pathways of influence. Paper presented at the Center for the Study of African Economies conference, ‘Opportunities in Africa: Micro evidence on firms and households’, 9-10 April 2000, Oxford.
Healy, K., Hampshire, A. & Ayres, L. (2004). Beyond the local: Extending the social capital discourse. Australian Journal of Social Issues 39: 329-342.
Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievement: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Development and Change, 30:435-464.
Long, J. S. and Freese, J. (2006). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using stata. Stata Press. USA.
Maluccio, J., Haddad, L. & May, J. (2000). Social capital and household welfare in South Africa, 1993-1998. Journal of Development Studies, 36(6): 54-81
Malhotra, A. (2003). Conceptualizing and measuring women’s empowerment as a variable in international development. A paper presented at the workshop on ‘measuring empowerment: Cross-disciplinary perspectives’ held at the World Bank in Washington, DC on February 4 and 5, 2003.
Mansuri, G. & Rao, V. (2004). Community based and driven development: A critical review. World Bank Research observer, 19(1):1-39.
Narayan, D, & Pritchett, L. (1999). Cents and sociability: household income and social capital in rural Tanzania. Economic Development and Social change, 47(4): 871-897.
Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: its origins and application in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24: 1-14.
Pratt, B. & Earle, L. (2004). Study of effective empowerment of citizens in Ethiopia: Overview paper. Draft paper prepared for the World Bank. Oxford, United Kingdom. INTRAC.
Putnam, R. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Rowlands, J. (1997). Questioning empowerment: Working with women in Honduras. Oxfam publishing, UK.
UNFPA. (1994). Programme of action of the international conference on population and development. United Nations Population Fund. [Online] http://www.unfpa.org/icpd/icpd_poa.htm [accessed 20 February, 2009].
Woolcock, M. & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research and policy. The World Bank Observer 15: 225-249.
World Bank. (2001). World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking poverty. Oxford University Press, New York.
World Bank (2002). Empowerment and poverty reduction – A sourcebook. Washington D.C.