Salois, Matthew and Tiffin, Richard and Balcombe, Kelvin (2010): Calorie and Nutrient Consumption as a Function of Income: A Cross-Country Analysis.
Download (405kB) | Preview
The relationship between calorie and nutrient (fat, protein, and carbohydrates) intake as a function of income is explored using data for 171 countries over two time periods 1990-1992 and 2003-2005. Three types of analysis are employed: i) nonparametric, ii) panel regressions, and iii) quantile regressions. Engle curves for calories, fat, and protein are approximately linear in logs with carbohydrate intakes exhibiting diminishing elasticities as incomes increase, becoming negative around $US7500 and above. Other nutrient and calorie elasticity estimates are positive statistically significant. Elasticities range from 0.10 to 0.25, with fat having the highest elasticities. The estimated elasticities for the quantile regressions are similar across the 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 quantiles, but with moderate evidence that countries in the higher quantiles have lower elasticities than those in the lower quantiles. There has been a small but significant shift in the elasticities across the two periods.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Calorie and Nutrient Consumption as a Function of Income: A Cross-Country Analysis|
|Keywords:||Calorie and Nutrient Consumption, Food and Nutrition Policies; Income Elasticities; Nonparametric Regression; Panel Data; Quantile Regression.|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General > C14 - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C2 - Single Equation Models ; Single Variables > C23 - Panel Data Models ; Spatio-temporal Models
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C2 - Single Equation Models ; Single Variables > C21 - Cross-Sectional Models ; Spatial Models ; Treatment Effect Models ; Quantile Regressions
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General > C11 - Bayesian Analysis: General
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q18 - Agricultural Policy ; Food Policy
|Depositing User:||Matthew Salois|
|Date Deposited:||31. Aug 2010 18:42|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 22:29|
Abdulai, A., and D. Aubert. (2004). Nonparametric and parametric analysis of calorie consumption in Tanzania. Food Policy, 29(2): 113-129.
Aromolaran, A.B. (2004). Household income, women's income share and food calorie intake in South Western Nigeria. Food Policy, 29(5): 507-530.
Babatunde, R.O., A.O. Adejobi, and S.B. Fakayode. (2010). Income and calorie intake among farming households in rural Nigeria: results of parametric and nonparametric analysis. Journal of Agricultural Science, 2(2): 135-146.
Boukouvalas, G., B. Shankar, and W.B. Traill. (2009). Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in England: a re-examination based on quantile regression. Public Health Nutrition, 12(11): 2183-2191.
Behrman, J.R., and A.B. Deolalikar. (1987). Will developing country nutrition improve with income? Journal of Political Economy, 95(3): 492-507.
Behrman, J.R., and A.B. Deolalikar. (1989). Is variety the spice of life? Implications for calorie intake. Review of Economics and Statistics, 71(4): 666-672.
Behrman, J.R., A.B. Deolalikar, and B.L. Wolfe. (1988). Nutrients: impacts and determinants. World Bank Economic Review, 2(3): 299-320.
Behrman, J.R., and B.L. Wolfe. (1984). More evidence on nutrition demand: income seems overrated and women's schooling underemphasized. Journal of Development Economics, 14(1): 105-128.
Behrman, J.R.., and B.L. Wolfe. (1987). How does mother's schooling affect family health, nutrition, medical care usage, and household sanitation? Journal of Econometrics, 36(1-2): 185-204.
Bhargava, A. (1991). Estimating short and long run income elasticities of foods and nutrients for rural South India. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series A), 154(1): 157-174.
Black, R.E., L.H. Allen, Z.A. Bhutta, L.E. Caulfield, M. de Onis, M. Ezzati, C. Mathers, and J. Rivera. (2010). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet, 371(9612): 243-260.
Bleich, S., D. Cutler, C. Murray, and A. Adams. (2008). Why is the developed world obese? Annual Review of Public Health, 29: 273-295.
Bouis, H.E. (1994). The effect of income on demand for food in poor countries: are our food consumption databases giving us reliable estimates? Journal of Development Economics, 44(1): 199-226.
Bouis, H.E., and L.J. Haddad. (1992). Are estimates of calorie-income elasticities too high? A recalibration of the plausible range. Journal of Development Economics, 39(2): 333-364.
Caballero, B. (2005). A nutrition paradox -- underweight and obesity in developing countries. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(15): 1514-1516.
Chib, S., and E. Greenberg (1995). Hierarchical analysis of SUR models with extensions to correlated serial errors and time-varying parameter models. Journal of Econometrics, 68(2): 339-360.
Dawson, P.J. (1997). The demand for calories in developing countries. Oxford Development Studies, 25(3): 361-369. Dawson, P.J. (2002). Nutrition in Pakistan: estimating the economic demand for calories. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 1(1): 64-66.
Dawson, P.J., and R. Tiffin. (1998). Estimating the demand for calories in India. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 80(3): 474-481.
Doak, C.M., L.S. Adair, M. Bentley, C. Monteiro, and B.M. Popkin. (2005). The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox. International Journal of Obesity, 29(1): 129-136.
Drewnowski, A. (2003). Fat and sugar: an economic analysis. Journal of Nutrition, 133(3): 838S-840S.
Drewnowski, A., and B.M. Popkin. (1997). The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutrition Reviews, 55(2): 31-43.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2009). State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome, Italy.
Fousekis, P., and P. Lazaridis. (2005). The demand for selected nutrients by Greek households: an empirical analysis with quantile regressions. Agricultural Economics, 32(3): 267-279.
Friedrich, M.J. (2002). Obesity expands its spread to developing countries. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(11): 1382-1386.
Gibson, J., and S. Rozelle. (2002). How elastic is calorie demand? Parametric, Nonparametric and Semiparametric results for urban Papua New Guinea. Journal of Development Studies, 38(6): 23-46.
Grimard, F. (1996). Does the poor's consumption of calories respond to changes in income? Evidence from Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, 35(3): 257-283.
Gustavsen, G.W., and K. Rickertsen. (2006). A censored quantile regression analysis of vegetable demand: the effects of changes in prices and total expenditure. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 54(4): 631-645.
Hossain, P., B. Kawar, and M. El Nahas. (2007). Obesity and diabetes in the developing world: a growing challenge. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(13): 213-215.
International Alliance Against Hunger. (2004). Joining Forces to End World Hunger. Strategy Paper.
Koop, G. (2003). Bayesian Econometrics. Wiley: Sussex, England.
Lancaster, T., and J.J. Sung. (2008). Bayesian Quantile Regression Methods. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 25(2), 287-307.
Misra, A. and L. Khurana. (2008). Obesity and metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(11): S9-S30.
Morris, S.S., B. Cogill, and R. Uauy. (2008). Effective international action against undernutrition: why has it proven so difficult and what can be done to accelerate progress? Lancet, 371(9612): 608-621.
Pinstrup-Andersen, P., and E. Caicedo. (1978). The potential impact of changes in income distribution on food demand and human nutrition. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 60(3): 402-415.
Popkin, B.M. (1994). The nutrition transition in low-income countries: an emerging crisis. Nutrition Reviews, 52(9): 285-298.
Popkin, B.M. (1999). Urbanization, lifestyle changes, and the nutrition transition. World Development, 27(11): 1905-1916.
Popkin, B.M. (2001). The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. Journal of Nutrition, 131(3): 871S-873S.
Popkin, B.M. (2004). The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. International Journal of Obesity, 28: S2-S9.
Popkin, B.M., and S.W. Ng. (2007). The nutrition transition in high- and low-income countries: what are the policy lessons? Agricultural Economics, 37(S1): 199-211.
Prentice, A.M. (2006). The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(1): 93-99.
Pitt, M.M. (1983). Food preferences and nutrition in rural Bangladesh. Review of Economics and Statistics, 65(1): 105-114.
Pitt, M.M., and M.R. Rosenzweig. (1985). Health and nutrient consumption across and within households. Review of Economics and Statistics, 67(2): 212-223.
Ravallion, M. (1990). Income effects on undernutrition. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 38(3): 489-515. Reutlinger, S. and H. Alderman. (1980). The prevalence of calorie-deficient diets in developing countries. World Development, 8(5-6): 399-411.
Roy, N. (2001). A semiparametric analysis of calorie response to income change across income groups and gender. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, 10(1): 93-109.
Sahn, D.E. (1988). The effect of price and income changes on food-energy intake in Sri Lanka. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36(2): 315-340.
Seidell, J.C. (2000). Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes -- a worldwide epidemic. British Journal of Nutrition, 83(S1): S5-S8.
Shankar, B. (2010). Socio-economic drivers of overnutrition in China. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, forthcoming.
Skoufias, E. (2003). Is the calorie-income elasticity sensitive to price changes? Evidence from Indonesia. World Development, 31(7): 1291-1307.
Skoufias, E., V. Di Maro, T. Gonzalez-Cossiom, and S. Rodriguez Ramirez. (2009). Nutrient consumption and household income in rural Mexico. Agricultural Economics, 40(6): 657-675.
Spiegelhalter, D.J., N.G. Best, B.P. Carlin, and A. van der Linde. (2002). Bayesian Measures of Model Complexity and Fit. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 64 (4): 583 - 639.
Subramanian, S., and A. Deaton. (1996). The demand for food and calories. Journal of Political Economy, 104(1): 133-162.
Tiffin, R. and P.J. Dawson. (2002). The demand for calories: some further estimates from Zimbabwe. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 53(2): 221-232.
Variyam, J.N., J. Blaylock, and D. Smallwood. (2002). Characterizing the distribution of macronutrient intake among U.S. adults: a quantile regression approach. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 84(2): 454-466.
Victoria, C.G., L. Adair, C. Fall, P.C. Hallal, R. Martorell, L. Richter, and H.S. Sachdev. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet, 371(9612): 340-357.
Ward, J.O., and J.H. Sanders. (1980). Nutritional determinants and migration in the Brazilian Northeast: a case study of rural and urban Ceará. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 29(1): 141-163.
Webb, P. (2010). Medium- to long-run implications of high food prices for global nutrition. Journal of Nutrition, 140(1): 143S-147S.
Wolfe, B.L. and J.R. Behrman. (1983). Is income overrated in determining adequate nutrition? Economic Development and Cultural Change, 31(3): 525-549.
World Bank. (1980). World Development Report. Washington, DC: USA.
World Bank. (1981). World Development Report. Washington, DC: USA.
World Health Organization. (2004). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Geneva: Switzerland.
World Health Organization. (2006). Obesity and Overweight Factsheet. Geneva: Switzerland.