Kirdar, Murat (2007): Explaining Ethnic Disparities in School Enrollment in Turkey.
Download (217kB) | Preview
There exist remarkable differences in educational outcomes across ethnic groups in Turkey. Moreover, almost a quarter of the population of 8- to 15-year-old children belong to ethnic minority groups. Yet, there exists no study that examines the ethnic disparities in educational outcomes in Turkey. This study presents these disparities and uncovers the factors that bring about these disparities using a rich micro-level dataset (Turkish Demographic and Health Survey). In doing so, this paper examines the differences not only in the levels of enrollment but also in the timing of drop-out across ethnic groups. The multivariate analysis accounts for a rich set of regional and socioeconomic factors, which also display striking differences across ethnic groups. The results show that regional and family level characteristics can fully account for the differences in the levels of enrollment across ethnic groups for male children, but not fully for female children. In other words, ethnicity has a direct impact on girls' school enrollment but not on boys'. There exists a gender gap among ethnic Turkish children as well as ethnic Arabic and Kurdish children. However, the gender gap among ethnic Kurdish children is wider than that among ethnic Turkish children.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||Middle East Technical University|
|Original Title:||Explaining Ethnic Disparities in School Enrollment in Turkey|
|Keywords:||Education; Ethnicity; Gender; Human Capital|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I21 - Analysis of Education
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender ; Non-labor Discrimination
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants ; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Murat Kirdar|
|Date Deposited:||09. Apr 2007|
|Last Modified:||24. Aug 2015 13:43|
Becker, Gary. 1964. Human Capital. New York: Columbia University Press. (3rd ed. 1993.) Becker, Gary and H.G. Lewis. 1973. "On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children." Journal of Political Economy 81: 279-288. Behrman, Jere and Anil Deolalikar. 1988. "Health and Nutrition." In Handbook of Development Economics I, eds. J. Behrman and T.N. Srinivasan. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Chiswick, Barry. 1988. "Differences in Education and Earnings across Racial and Ethnic Groups: Tastes, Discrimination, and Investments in Child Quality." Quarterly Journal of Economics 103: 571-597. Darity, William and Jessica G. Nembhard. 2000. "Cross-National Comparisons of Racial and Ethnic Economic Inequality." American Economic Review 90, Papers and Proceedings of the One Hundred Twelfth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association: 308-311. Dayıoğlu, Meltem. 2005. "Patterns of Change in Child Labour and Schooling in Turkey: The Impact of Compulsory Schooling." Oxford Development Studies 33: 195-210. Garcia-Aracil A. and Carolyn Winter. 2006. "Gender and Ethnicity Differentials in School Attainment and Labor Market Earnings in Ecuador." World Development 34: 289-307. Govindasamy P. and J. DaVanzo. 1992. "Ethnicity and Fertility Differentials in Peninsular Malaysia: Do Policies Matter?" Population and Development Review 18: 243-267. Gustafsson, B. and L. Shi. 2003. "The Ethnic Minority-Majority Income Gap in Rural China during Transition." Economic Development and Cultural Change 51: 805-822. Gündüz-Hoşgör, A. and J. Smits. 2001. "Linguistic Capital: Language as a Socio-economic Resource among Ethnic Women in Turkey." mimeo. Hannum, Emily. 2002. "Educational Stratification by Ethnicity in China: Enrollment and Attainment in the Early Reform Years." Demography.39: 95-117. Hannum, Emily and Yu Xie. 1998. "Ethnic Stratification in Northwest China: Occupational Differences between Han Chinese and National Minorities in Xinjiang, 1982-1990." Demography 35: 323-333. Haveman, R. and B. Wolfe. 1984. "Education and Economic Well-Being: The Role of Nonmarket Effects." Journal of Human Resources 19: 377-407. Haveman, R. and B. Wolfe. 1995. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: a Review of Methods and Findings." Journal of Economic Literature 33: 1829-1878. İçduygu, A., Romano D. and I. Sirkeci. 1999. "The ethnic question in an environment of insecurity: the Kurds in Turkey." Ethnic and Racial Studies 22: 991-1010. Krivo L. and R. Kaufman. 2004. "Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States." Demography 41: 585:605. Mutlu, Servet. 1996. "Ethnic Kurds in Turkey: A Demographic Study." International Journal of Middle East Studies 28: 517-541. Psacharopoulos, G. 1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implication." Journal of Human Resources 20: 583-604. Raturi, Mayank and Anand Swamy. 1999. "Explaining Ethnic Differentials in Credit Market Outcomes in Zimbabwe." Economic Development and Cultural Change 47: 585:604. Schafgans, Marcia. 1998. "Ethnic Wage Differences in Malaysia: Parametric and Semiparametric Estimation of the Chinese-Malay Wage Gap." Journal of Applied Econometrics 13: 481-504. Schultz, T.W. 1961. "Investments in Human Capital." American Economic Review 51:1-17 Schultz Paul. 1988. "Education Investments and Returns." In Handbook of Development Economics I, eds. J. Behrman and T.N. Srinivasan. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Smith, James P. 1995. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth in the Health and Retirement Study." Journal of Human Resources 30: S158-S183. Smits, J. and A. Gündüz-Hoşgör. 2006. "Effects of Family Background Characteristics on Educational Participation in Turkey." International Journal of Educational Development 26: 545-560. Strauss, J and D. Thomas. 1995. "Human Resources: Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions." In Handbook of Development Economics IIIA, eds. J. Behrman and T.N. Srinivasan. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Tansel, A. 2002. "Determinants of School Attainment of Boys and Girls in Turkey: Individual, Household and Community Factors", Economics of Education Review 21: 455-470. Tunalı, İ. 1996. "Education and Work: Experiences of 6-14 Year-Old Children in Turkey." In Education and the Labour Market in Turkey, ed. Tuncer Bulutay. SIS: Ankara.