Berg, Nathan and Biele, Guido and Gigerenzer, Gerd (2010): Does consistency predict accuracy of beliefs?: Economists surveyed about PSA.
Download (426kB) | Preview
Subjective beliefs and behavior regarding the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test for prostate cancer were surveyed among attendees of the 2006 meeting of the American Economic Association. Logical inconsistency was measured in percentage deviations from a restriction imposed by Bayes’ Rule on pairs of conditional beliefs. Economists with inconsistent beliefs tended to be more accurate than average, and consistent Bayesians were substantially less accurate. Within a loss function framework, we look for and cannot find evidence that inconsistent beliefs cause economic losses. Subjective beliefs about cancer risks do not predict PSA testing decisions, but social influences do.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Does consistency predict accuracy of beliefs?: Economists surveyed about PSA|
|Keywords:||logical consistency, predictive accuracy, elicitation, non-Bayesian, ecological rationality|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D0 - General > D03 - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles|
|Depositing User:||Nathan Berg|
|Date Deposited:||10. Nov 2010 14:13|
|Last Modified:||06. Apr 2015 18:31|
Andreoni, J. and J. Miller, "Giving According to GARP: An Experimental Test of the Consistency of Preferences for Altruism," Econometrica, 70 (2002), 737-53.
Andriole G.L., E.D. Crawford, R.L. Grubb, S.S. Buys, D. Chia, and T.R. Church TR, et al.“Mortality Results From A Randomized Prostate-Cancer Screening Trial.” N Engl J Med. 360(13) (2009):1310-9.
Aragones, E., I. Gilboa, A. Postlewaite, and D. Schmeidler, “Fact-Free Learning,” American Economic Review, 95 (2005), 1355-1368.
Ariely, D., G. Loewenstein, and D. Prelec, “Coherent Arbitrariness: Stable Demand Curves Without Stable Preferences,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118 (2003), 73-106.
Baker, D.W., R.M. Parker, M.V. Williams, and W.S. Clark, "Health Literacy and the Risk of Hospital Admission," The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13 (1998), 791-798.
Bardsley, N., R. Cubitt, G. Loomes, P. Moffatt, C. Starmer, and R. Sugden, Experimental Economics: Rethinking The Rules (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).
Barry, Michael J, "The PSA Conundrum," Archives of Internal Medicine, 166 (2006), 38-43.
Baucells, M., J.A. Carrasco, and R.M. Hogarth, “Cumulative Dominance And Heuristic Performance In Binary Multi-Attribute Choice,” Operations Research, 56 (5) (2008), 1289-1304.
Behrens, Johann, Werner Güth, Hartmut Kliemt, and Vittoria Levati, "Games that Doctors Play Twolayered Agency Problems in a Medical System," in A. Mehler and U. Cantner (eds.), Dimensions of Public Economics: Strategies and Policies Facing Uncertainty and Market Failure (forthcoming).
Berg, Nathan, “Normative Behavioral Economics,” Journal of Socio-Economics, 32 (2003), 411-427.
Berg, N., C. Eckel, and C. Johnson, “Inconsistency Pays?: Time-Inconsistent Subjects And EU Violators Earn More,” Working Paper (2010), University of Texas-Dallas.
Berg, Nathan, and Ulrich Hoffrage, “Rational Ignoring with Unbounded Cognitive Capacity,” Journal of Economics Psychology, 29(6) (2008), 792-809.
Berg, Nathan and Gerd Gigerenzer, “Psychology implies paternalism?: Bounded rationality may reduce the rationale to regulate risk-taking,” Social Choice and Welfare, 28(2) (2007), 337-359.
Berg, Nathan and Gerd Gigerenzer, “As-if behavioral economics: Neoclassical economics in disguise?,” History of Economic Ideas, 18(1) (2010), 113-166.
Berg, Nathan and Donald Lien, "Does Society Benefit from Investor Overconfidence in the Ability of Financial Market Experts?" Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 58 (2005), 95-116.
Bewley, Truman, “Knightian Decision Theory: Part 1,” Decisions in Economics and Finance, 25 (2002), 79-110.
Binmore, K., Rational Decisions, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008).
Binmore, K., J. McCarthy, G., Ponti, L., Samuelson, and A. Shaked, “A Backward Induction Experiment,” Journal of Economic Theory, 104 (2002), 48–88.
Blendon, Robert J., John M. Benson, Mollyann Brodie, Richard Morin, Drew E. Altman, Daniel Gitterman, Mario Brossard, and Matt James, "Bridging the Gap between the Public's and Economists' Views of the Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(3) (1997), 105-118.
Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson, Culture and the Evolutionary Process, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
Braga, J., S.J. Humphrey, and C. Starmer, “Market Experience Eliminates Some Anomalies-And Creates New Ones,” European Economic Review, 53 (2009), 401-416.
Camerer, Colin F. and Robin M. Hogarth, "The Effects of Financial Incentives in Experiments: A Review and Capital-Labor-Production Framework," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 19 (1999), 7-42.
Camerer, C., S. Issacharoff, G. Loewenstein, T. O’Donoghue, and M. Rabin, “Regulation For Conservatives: Behavioral Economics And The Case For “Asymmetric Paternalism.”” University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1151 (2003), 1211-1254.
Camerer, C., G. Loewenstein, and M. Weber, “The Curse Of Knowledge In Economic Settings: An Experimental Analysis,” Journal of Political Economy, 97 (1989), 1232-1254.
Caplan, Bryan, "What Makes People Think Like Economists? Evidence on Economic Cognition from the ‘Survey of Americans and Economists on the Economy,’" Journal of Law and Economics, 44(2) (2001), 395-426.
Caplan, Bryan, "Systematically Biased Beliefs About Economics: Robust Evidence of Judgmental Anomalies from the Survey of Americans and Economists on the Economy," The Economic Journal, 112(479) (2002), 433-458.
Carter, John R. and Michael D. Irons, "Are Economists Different, and If So, Why?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(2) (1991), 171-177.
Cherry, T., T. Crocker, and J. Shogren, "Rationality Spillovers," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 45 (2003), 63-85.
Chu, Yun-Peng and Ruey-Ling Chu, "The Subsidence of Preference Reversals in Simplified and Marketlike Experimental Settings," American Economic Review, 80 (1990), 902-911.
Ciatto, S., M. Zappa, R. Bonardi, and G. Gervasi, "Prostate Cancer Screening: The Problem of Overdiagnosis and Lessons to Be Learned from Breast Cancer Screening," European Journal of Cancer, 36 (2000), 1347-1350.
Ciatto, Stefano, "Reliability of PSA Testing Remains Unclear," British Medical Journal, 327 (2003), 750.
Comte, O. and A. Postlewaite, “Repeated Relationships With Limits On Information Processing,” PIER Working Paper 08-026 (2008), University of Pennsylvania.
Concato, John, Carolyn K. Wells, Ralph I. Horwitz, David Penson, Graeme Fincke, Dan R. Berlowitz, Gregory Froehlich, Dawna Blake, Martyn A. Vickers, Gerald A. Gehr, Nabil H. Raheb, Gail Sullivan, and Peter Peduzzi, "The Effectiveness of Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study," Archives of Internal Medicine, 166 (2006), 38-43.
Cubitt, R. and R. Sugden, "Dynamic Decision-Making Under Uncertainty: An Experimental Investigation of Choices Between Accumulator Gambles," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 22(1) (2001), 103-128.
Davidson, D., J.C.C. McKinsey, and P. Suppes, "Outlines of a Formal Theory of Value, I," Philosophy of Science, 22 (1955), 140-160.
Dekel E. and S. Scotchmer, “On the Evolution of Attitudes Toward Risk in Winner-Take-All Games,” Journal of Economic Theory, 87 (1999), 95-124.
De Long, Bradford J., Andrei Shleifer, Lawrence H. Summers, and Robert Waldman, "The Survival of Noise Traders in Financial Markets," Journal of Business, 64 (1991), 1-19.
DeMiguel, V., L. Garlappi, and R. Uppal, “Optimal Versus Naive Diversification: How Inefficient Is The 1/N Portfolio Strategy,” Review of Financial Studies, 22 (2009), 1915–1953.
Draisma, Gerrit, Rob Boer, Suzie J. Otto, Ingrid W. van der Cruijsen, Ronald A.M. Damhuis, Fritz H. Schröder, and Harry J. de Koning, "Lead Times and Overdetection Due to Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening: Estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 95(12) (2003), 868-878.
Emerson, Ralph W., Selected Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, (New York, NY: Penguin,  2003).
Fehr, Ernst and Jean-Robert Tyran, "Individual Irrationality and Aggregate Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19 (2005), 43-66.
Frank, Robert H., Thomas D. Gilovich, and Dennis T. Regan, "Does Studying Economics Inhibit Cooperation?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(2) (1993), 159-171.
Fuchs, Victor R., Alan B. Krueger, and James M. Poterba, "Economists' Views About Parameters, Values, and Policies: Survey Results in Labor and Public Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, 36(3) (1998), 1387-1425.
Gaechter, S., H. Orzen, E., Renner, and C. Starmer, C., “Are Experimental Economists Prone To Framing Effects? A Natural Field Experiment,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 70 (2009), 443-446.
Ganguly, Ananda, John H. Kagel, and Donald V. Moser, "Do Asset Market Prices Reflect Traders' Judgment Biases?," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 20(3) (2000), 219-245.
Gann, Peter H., "Interpreting Recent Trends in Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality," Epidemiology, 8 (1997), 117-120.
Gann, Peter H., C.H. Hennekens, and M.J. Stampfer, "A Prospective Evaluation of Plasma Prostate-Specific Antigen for Detection of Prostate Cancer," Journal of the American Medical Association, 273 (1995), 289-294.
Gigerenzer, Gerd, “Fast and Frugal Heuristics: The Tools of Bounded Rationality,” in D.J. Koehler and N. Harvey (eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004, pp. 62-88).
Gigerenzer, Gerd and Ulrich Hoffrage, "How to Improve Bayesian Reasoning Without Instruction: Frequency Formats," Psychological Review, 102(4) (1995), 684-704.
Gigerenzer, Gerd and Ulrich Hoffrage, "Overcoming Difficulties in Bayesian Reasoning: A Reply to Lewis, Meilers & McGraw," Psychological Review, 106 (1999), 425-430.
Gigerenzer, Gerd and Reinhard Selten, "Rethinking Rationality," in G. Gigerenzer and R. Selten (eds.), Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001, pp. 1-12).
Gilboa, Itzhak, “Questions In Decision Theory,” Annual Reviews in Economics, (forthcoming).
Gilboa, I., A. Postlewaite, and D. Schmeidler, “Probabilities n Economic Modeling,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22 (2008), 173-188.
Gilboa, I., A. Postlewaite, and D. Schmeidler, “Is It Always Rational To Satisfy Savage’s Axioms?” Economics and Philosophy, 25 (2009), 285-296.
Gilboa, I. and L. Samuelson, “Subjectivity In Inductive Inference,” Working Paper (2010), HEC-Paris.
Gilboa, I.,L. Samuelson, and D. Schmeidler, “Dynamics Of Inductive Inference In A Unified Model,” Working Paper (2010), Yale University.
Gilboa, Itzhak and David Schmeidler, “Case-Based Decision Theory,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110 (1995), 605-639.
Gintis, Herbert, “The Dynamics of General Equilibrium,” Economic Journal, 117 (2007), 1280–1309.
Gintis, Herbert, “Bayesian Rationality, Social Epistemology, And The Choreographer,” Working Paper (2010), Central European University.
Gintis, Herbert, “Rationality And Its Discontents,” Economic Journal (forthcoming).
Goldstein, D. G. and G. Gigerenzer, “Fast And Frugal Forecasting,” International Journal of Forecasting, 25 (2009), 760-772.
Grether, D.M. and Charles R. Plott, "Economic Theory of Choice and the Preference Reversal Phenomenon," American Economic Review, 69(4) (1979), 623-638.
Grunwald, P.D. and J.Y. Halpern, “When Ignorance Is Bliss,” ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 70 (2004), 226-234.
Halpern, J.Y., “On Ambiguities In The Interpretation Of Game Trees,” Games and Economic Behavior, 20 (1997), 66-96.
Hammond, K.R., Human Judgment and Social Policy: Irreducible Uncertainty, Inevitable Error, Unavoidable Injustice, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
Hammond, P., “Consequentialist Foundations For Expected Utility,” Theory and Decision, 25 (1988), 25–78.
Hastie, R. and K.A. Rasinski, “The Concept Of Accuracy In Social Judgment,” in D. Bar-Tal and A.W. Kruglanski (eds.), The Social Psychology of Knowledge (New York, NY; Paris, France: Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 193-208).
Haltiwanger, J.C. and M. Waldman, "Rational Expectations and the Limits of Rationality: An Analysis of Heterogeneity," American Economic Review, 75(3) (1985), 326-340.
Harris, Russell and Kathleen N. Lohr, "Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Update of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventative Taskforce Services," Annals of Internal Medicine, 37(11) (2002), 917-929.
Harbaugh, W.T., K. Krause, and T.R. Berry, "GARP for Kids: On the Development of Rational Choice Behavior," American Economic Review, 91 (2001), 1539-1545.
Hawkes, Nigel, "Prostate Cancer Test May Leave Men Even Worse Off," http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article786762.ece, (2006).
Heifetz, A. and E. Segev, “The Evolutionary Role of Toughness in Bargaining,” Games and Economic Behavior, 49 (2004), 117-134.
Heifetz, A. and Y. Spiegel, “The Evolution of Biased Perceptions,” Tel-Aviv University, (2001).
Hogarth, R. M., and N. Karelaia, "Simple Models For Multi-Attribute Choice With Many Alternatives: When It Does And Does Not Pay To Face Tradeoffs With Binary Attributes," Management Science, 51(12) (2005), 1860-1872.
Hogarth, R. M., and N. Karelaia, "’Take-The-Best’ And Other Simple Strategies: Why And When They Work ‘Well’ With Binary Cues," Theory and Decision, 61 (2006), 205-249.
Holmberg, Lars, Anna Bill-Axelson, Fred Helgesen, Jaakko O. Salo, Per Folmerz, Michael Haggman, Swen-Olof Andersson, Anders Spangberg, Christer Busch, Steg Nordling, Juni Palmgren, Hans-Olov Adami, Jan-Erik Johansson, and Bo Johan Norlén, "A Randomized Trial Comparing Radical Prostatectomy with Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer," The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(11) (2002), 781-789.
Kitcher, Phillip, "The Naturalists Return,” Philosophical Review,101 (1992), 53-114.
Kluger, Brian D. and Steve Wyatt, "Are Judgment Errors Reflected in Market Prices and Allocations? Experimental Evidence Based on a Monty Hall Problem," Journal of Finance, 59(3) (2003), 969-997.
Kyle, A.S. and A.Wang, “Speculation Duopoly with Agreement to Disagree: Can Overconfidence Survive the Market Test?,” Journal of Finance, LII (1997), 2073-2090.
Jolls, C., C.R. Sunstein, and R.H. Thaler, “A Behavioral Approach To Law And Economics.” Stanford Law Review, 50 (1998), 1471-1541.
Laibson, D. and L.Yariv, "Safety in Markets: An Impossibility Theorem for Dutch Books," Harvard University, 2007.
Leland, J. "Generalized Similarity Judgments: An Alternative Explanation For Choice Anomalies,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 9 (1994), 151-172.
List, John and Daniel Millimet, "Bounding the Impact of Market Experience on Rationality: Evidence from a Field Experiment with Imperfect Compliance," Southern Methodist University, 2004.
Litwin, Mark S., Ron D. Hays, Arlene Fink, Patricia A. Ganz, Barbara Leake, Gary E. Leach, and Robert H. Brook, "Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Men Treated for Localized Prostate Cancer," The Journal of the American Medical Association, 273 (1995), 129-135.
Loewenstein, George, “Anticipation And The Valuation Of Delayed Consumption,” The Economic Journal, 97(387) (1987), 666-684.
Loewenstein, George, "Experimental Economics from the Vantage-Point of Behavioural Economics," Economic Journal, 109(453) (1999), F23-34.
Loewenstein, George, "Hot-Cold Empathy Gaps and Medical Decision Making," Health Psychology, 24 (2005), S49-S56.
Loewenstein, George, “The Pleasures and Pains of Information,” Science, 312 (2006), 704-706.
Loomes, G., C. Starmer, and R. Sugden, “Preference Reversal: Information Processing Or Rational Non-Transitive Choice?,” Economic Journal, 99 (1989), 140-151.
Loomes, G., C. Starmer, and R. Sugden, “Observing Violations Of Transitivity By Experimental Methods,” Econometrica, 59 (1991), 425-439.
Loomes, G., C. Starmer, and R. Sugden, “Preference Reversals And Disparities Between Willingness To Pay And Willingness To Accept In Repeated Markets,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 31 (2010)., 374-387.
Lusardi, A. and O.S. Mitchell, “How Ordinary Consumers Make Complex Economic Decisions: Financial Literacy And Retirement Readiness,” Working Paper (2009), Dartmouth University.
McFall, Stephanie L. and Robert M. Hamm, "Interpretation of Prostate Cancer Screening Events and Outcomes: A Focus Group Study," Patient Education and Counseling, 49 (2003), 207-218.
Parker, Ruth M., David W. Baker, Mark V. Williams, and Joanne R. Nurss, "The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults: A New Instrument for Measuring Patients' Literacy Skills," Journal of General Internal Medicine, 10 (1995), 537-541.
Raiffa, H., Decision Analysis: Introductory Lectures on Choice under Uncertainty, (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1968).
Robson, A., and L. Samuelson, L., “The Evolution Of Time Preference With Aggregate Uncertainty,” American Economic Review, 99 (2009), 1925-1953.
Rubinstein, Ariel, “Comments on the Interpretation of Game Theory,” Econometrica, 59 (1991), 909-924.
Rubinstein, Ariel, “A Theorist's View of Experiments,” European Economic Review, 45 (2001), 615-628.
Rubinstein, Ariel, “"Economics and Psychology"? The Case of Hyperbolic Discounting,” International Economic Review, 44 (2003), 1207-1216.
Rubinstein, Ariel, “Dilemmas of An Economic Theorist. Econometrica,” Econometrica, 74 (2006), 865-883.
Rubinstein, A. and M. Osborne, “Games with Procedurally Rational Players,”American Economic Review, 88 (1998), 834-847.
Rubinstein, Ariel and Ran Spiegler, "Money Pumps in the Market," Journal of the European Economic Association, 6 (2008), 237-253.
Samuelson, L., “Analogies, Adaptation, And Anomalies,” Journal of Economic Theory, 97 (2001), 320–367.
Samuelson, L., and J. Swinkels, “Information, Evolution and Utility,” Theoretical Economics, 1 (2006), 119-142.
Savage, L., The Foundations of Statistics, (New York, NY: Wiley, 1954).
Segal, U. and J. Sobel, J., “Tit For Tat: Foundations Of Preferences For Reciprocity In Strategic Settings,” Journal of Economic Theory, 136 (2007), 197-216.
Selten, R., “What Is Bounded Rationality?,” in G. Gigerenzer and R. Selten (eds.) Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001, pp. 13-36).
Sen, Amartya, "Internal Consistency of Choice," Econometrica, 61(3) (1993), 495-521.
Sippel, Reinhard, "An Experiment on the Pure Theory of Consumers' Behaviour," Economic Journal, 107 (1997), 1431-1444.
Smith, Vernon, "Constructivist and Ecological Rationality in Economics," American Economic Review, 93(3) (2003), 465-508.
Sorum, Paul Clay, Etienne Mullet, Junseop Shim, Sylvie Bonnin-Scaon, Gérard Chasseigne, and Joel Cogneau, "Avoidance of Anticipated Regret: The Ordering of Prostate-Specific Antigen Tests," Medical Decision Making, 24 (2004), 149-159.
Spiegel, Y., A. Heifetza, and C. Shannon, “What To Maximize If You Must,” Journal of Economic Theory, 133 (2007), 31 – 57.
Stanford, J.L., R.A. Stephenson, L.M. Coyle, J. Cerhan, R. Correa, J.W. Eley, F. Gilliland, B. Hankey, L.N. Kolonel, C. Kosary, R. Ross, R. Severson, and D.West, “Prostate Cancer Trends 1973-1995,” (Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 99-4543, 1999).
Starmer, Chris, "Developments in Non-Expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk," Journal of Economic Literature, 38 (2000), 332-382.
Starmer, Chris., “Normative Notions In Descriptive Dialogues, Journal of Economic Methodology, 12 (2005), 277-290.
Starmer, Chris, "Friedman's Risky Methodology," in U. Mäki (ed.) The Methodology of Positive Economics: Reflections on the Milton Friedman Legacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 285-302).
Steineck, Gunnar, Fred Helgesen, Jan Adolfsson, Paul W. Dickman, Jan-Erik Johansson, Bo Johan
Norlén, and Lars Holmberg, "Quality of Life after Radical Prostatectomy or Watchful Waiting," The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(11) (2002), 790-796.
Studdert, D. M., M.M. Mello, W.M. Sage, C.M. DesRoches, J. Peugh, K. Zapert, and T.A. Brennan, “Defensive Medicine Among High-Risk Specialist Physicians In A Volatile Malpractice Environment.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 293 (2005), 2609-17.
Sugden, R., “Rational Choice: A Survey Of Contributions From Economics And Philosophy,” Economic Journal, 101 (1991), 751–785.
Sugden, R., “The Opportunity Criterion: Consumer Sovereignty Without The Assumption Of Coherent Preferences." American Economic Review, 94 (2004), 1014–1033.
Sugden, R., “The Changing Relationship Between Theory And Experiment In Economics,” Philosophy of Science, 75 (2008a), 621–632.
Sugden, R., “Why Incoherent Preferences Do Not Justify Paternalism,” Constitutional Political Economy, 19 (2008b), 226–248.
Sugden, R. “Credible Worlds, Capacities and Mechanisms,” Erkenntnis, 70 (2009), 3–27.
Thaler, R.H., Quasi Rational Economics, (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1991).
Tukey, John, Exploratory Data Analysis, (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977).
Tversky, Amos, "Intransitivity of Preferences," Psychological Review, 76 (1969), 31-48.
Tversky Amos and Kahneman Daniel, “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics And Biases,” Science, 185 (1974), 1124-1131.
Tversky Amos and Daniel Kahneman, “Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions,” Journal of Business, 59 (1986), S251-S278.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, "Screening for Prostate Cancer: Recommendation and Rationale," Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(11) (2002), 915-916.
Wang, Linda and Katherine Arnold, "Prostate Cancer Incidence Trends Reveal Extent of Screening- Related Overdiagnosis," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94(13) (2002), 957.
Warneryd, K., “Sexual Reproduction And Time-Inconsistent Preferences,” Economics Letters (forthcoming).
Williams, Mark V., Ruth M. Parker, David W. Baker, Nina S. Parikh, Kathryn Pitkin, Wendy C. Coates, and Joanne R. Nurss, "Inadequate Functional Health Literacy among Patients at Two Public Hospitals," The Journal of the American Medical Association, 274(21) (1995), 1677-1682.
Wisdom, J., J.S. Downs, and G. Loewenstein, “Promoting Healthy Choices: Information Versus Convenience,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2 (2010), 164–178.
Yao, Siu-Long and Grace Lu-Yao, "Understanding and Appreciating Overdiagnosis in the PSA Era," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, July, 94(13) (2002), 958-960.
Yezer, Anthony M., Robert S. Goldfarb, and Paul J. Poppen, "Does Studying Economics Discourage Cooperation?: Watch What We Do, Not What We Say or How We Play," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(1) (1996), 171-186.